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Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis surveillance and cascade of care in Madagascar: a five-year (2012-2017) retrospective study

Knoblauch, Astrid M. and Grandjean Lapierre, Simon and Randriamanana, Daniella and Raherison, Mamy Serge and Rakotoson, Andrianantenaina and Raholijaona, Bienvenue Solofomandimby and Ravaoarimanga, Masiarivony and Ravololonandriana, Pascaline Elisabeth and Rabodoarivelo, Marie-Sylvianne and Ratsirahonana, Orelys and Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa and Razafindranaivo, Turibio and Rasolofo, Voahangy and Rakotosamimanana, Niaina. (2020) Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis surveillance and cascade of care in Madagascar: a five-year (2012-2017) retrospective study. BMC medicine, 18. p. 173.

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Abstract

In Madagascar, the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) surveillance programme was launched in late 2012 wherein previously treated TB cases and symptomatic MDR-TB contacts (hereafter called presumptive MDR-TB cases) undergo drug susceptibility testing. This retrospective review had per aim to provide an update on the national MDR-TB epidemiology, assess and enhance programmatic performance and assess Madagascar's MDR-TB cascade of care.; For 2012-2017, national TB control programme notification, clinical management data and reference laboratory data were gathered. The development and coverage of the surveillance programme, the MDR-TB epidemiology and programmatic performance indicators were assessed using descriptive, logistic and spatial statistical analyses. Data for 2017 was further used to map Madagascar's TB and MDR-TB cascade of care.; The geographical coverage and diagnostic and referral capacities of the MDR-TB surveillance programme were gradually expanded whereas regional variations persist with regard to coverage, referral rates and sample referral delays. Overall, the rate of MDR-TB among presumptive MDR-TB cases remained relatively stable, ranging between 3.9% in 2013 and 4.4% in 2017. Most MDR-TB patients were lost in the second gap of the cascade pertaining to MDR-TB cases reaching diagnostic centres but failing to be accurately diagnosed (59.0%). This poor success in diagnosis of MDR-TB is due to both the current use of low-sensitivity smear microscopy as a first-line diagnostic assay for TB and the limited access to any form of drug susceptibility testing. Presumptive MDR-TB patients' sample referral took a mean delay of 28 days before testing. Seventy-five percent of diagnosed MDR-TB patients were appropriately initiated on treatment, and 33% reached long-term recurrence-free survival.; An expansion of the coverage and strengthening of MDR-TB diagnostic and management capacities are indicated across all regions of Madagascar. With current limitations, the surveillance programme data is likely to underestimate the true MDR-TB burden in the country and an updated national MDR-TB prevalence survey is warranted. In absence of multiple drivers of an MDR-TB epidemic, including high MDR-TB rates, high HIV infection rates and inter-country migration, Madagascar is in a favourable starting position for MDR-TB control and elimination.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Eco System Health Sciences > Health Impact Assessment (Winkler)
UniBasel Contributors:Knoblauch, Astrid
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1741-7015
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:10 Jul 2020 11:12
Deposited On:10 Jul 2020 11:12

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