Characteristics of persistent hotspots of Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire

Assaré, Rufin K. and N'Tamon, Roméo N. and Bellai, Louise G. and Koffi, Judicaelle A. and Mathieu, Tra-Bi I. and Ouattara, Mamadou and Hürlimann, Eveline and Coulibaly, Jean T. and Diabaté, Salia and N'Goran, Eliézer K. and Utzinger, Jürg. (2020) Characteristics of persistent hotspots of Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire. Parasites and Vectors, 13. p. 337.

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Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. However, in some social-ecological settings, the prevalence and/or intensity of Schistosoma infection does not lower meaningfully despite multiple rounds of preventive chemotherapy, a phenomenon termed persistent hotspot (PHS). We assessed the characteristics of PHS in a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area of Côte d'Ivoire.; In October 2016, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 14 schools in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, one year after multiple rounds of preventive chemotherapy. In each school, 50 children aged 9-12 years provided two stool samples and one urine sample. Stool samples were subjected to triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni diagnosis. Urine samples were examined by a filtration method for S. haematobium eggs. PHS was defined as failure to achieve a reduction in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection of at least 35% and/or a reduction of infection intensity of at least 50%. Six schools underwent more detailed investigations, including a questionnaire survey for demographic characteristics and a malacological survey.; In the six schools subjected to detailed investigations, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni and S. haematobium was 9.5% and 2.6%, respectively. Four schools were classified as PHS. The S. mansoni prevalence in the four PHS was 10.9% compared to 6.6% in the remaining two schools. The S. mansoni infection intensity, expressed as arithmetic mean eggs per gram of stool (EPG) among infected children, was 123.8 EPG in PHS and 18.7 EPG in the other two schools. Children bathing in open freshwater bodies were at higher odds of S. mansoni infection (odds ratio: 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-12.6). A total of 76 human-water contact sites (53 in PHS and 23 in the other schools) were examined and 688 snails were collected, including potential intermediate host snails of Schistosoma (Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, Bu. globosus and Bu. truncatus).; Children in PHS schools bathed more frequently in open freshwater bodies, and hence, they are more exposed to Schistosoma transmission. Our findings call for an integrated control approach, complementing preventive chemotherapy with other interventions, particularly in PHS settings.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology (MPI) > Helminth Drug Development (Keiser)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Former Units within Swiss TPH > Health Impact Assessment (Utzinger)
UniBasel Contributors:Kouassi Rufin, Assare and Bellai, Louise and Hürlimann, Eveline and Coulibaly, Jean and Utzinger, Jürg
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:BioMed Central
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:10 Jul 2020 08:18
Deposited On:10 Jul 2020 08:18

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