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Strongyloides stercoralis : spatial distribution of a highly prevalent and ubiquitous soil-transmitted helminth in Cambodia

Forrer, Armelle and Khieu, Virak and Vounatsou, Penelope and Sithithaworn, Paiboon and Ruantip, Sirowan and Huy, Rekol and Muth, Sinuon and Odermatt, Peter. (2019) Strongyloides stercoralis : spatial distribution of a highly prevalent and ubiquitous soil-transmitted helminth in Cambodia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 13 (6). e0006943.

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Abstract

Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected soil-transmitted helminth that occurs worldwide, though it is particularly endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. It can cause long-lasting and potentially fatal infections due to its ability to replicate within its host. S. stercoralis causes gastrointestinal and dermatological morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the S. stercoralis infection risk and, using geostatistical models, to predict its geographical distribution in Cambodia.; A nation-wide, community-based parasitological survey was conducted among the Cambodian population, aged 6 years and older. S. stercoralis was diagnosed using a serological diagnostic test that detects IgG antibodies in urine. Data on demography, hygiene and knowledge about helminth infection were collected. S. stercoralis prevalence among 7,246 participants with a complete data record was 30.5%, ranging from 10.9% to 48.2% across provinces. The parasite was ubiquitous in Cambodia; only five south-eastern provinces had prevalence rates below 20%. Infection risk increased with age for both men and women, although girls under the age of 13 and women aged 50 years and over had lower odds of infection than their male counterparts. Open defecation was associated with higher odds of infection, while having some knowledge of the health problems caused by worms was a protective factor. Infection risk was positively associated with nighttime maximum temperature, minimum rainfall, and distance to water; it was negatively associated with land occupied by rice fields.; S. stercoralis infection is rampant in Cambodia. Control programs delivering ivermectin are needed to manage the parasite. However, the high cost of this drug in Cambodia currently precludes the implementation of control initiatives. Donations, subsidies or affordable generics are needed so that S. stercoralis, which infects almost a third of the Cambodian population, can be addressed through an adequate control program.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Biostatistics > Bayesian Modelling and Analysis (Vounatsou)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Eco System Health Sciences > Helminths and Health (Odermatt)
UniBasel Contributors:Forrer, Armelle and Vounatsou, Penelope and Odermatt, Peter
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1935-2727
e-ISSN:1935-2735
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:29 Jul 2019 08:01
Deposited On:29 Jul 2019 08:01

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