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The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease and the association with non-communicable and communicable disorders in a population of sub-Saharan Africa

Hodel, Nikolai C. and Hamad, Ali and Praehauser, Claudia and Mwangoka, Grace and Kasella, Irene Mndala and Reither, Klaus and Abdulla, Salim and Hatz, Christoph F. R. and Mayr, Michael. (2018) The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease and the association with non-communicable and communicable disorders in a population of sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS ONE, 13 (10). e0205326.

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Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), epidemiological data for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are scarce. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study including 952 patients in an outpatient clinic in Tanzania to explore CKD prevalence estimates and the association with cardiovascular and infectious disorders. According to KDIGO, we measured albumin-to-creatinine ratio and calculated eGFR using CKD-EPI formula. Factors associated with CKD were calculated by logistic regression. Venn diagrams were modelled to visualize interaction between associated factors and CKD. Overall, the estimated CKD prevalence was 13.6% (95% CI 11-16%). Ninety-eight patients (11.2%) (95% CI 9-14%) were categorized as moderate, 12 (1.4%) (95% CI 0-4%) as high, and 9 (1%) (95% CI 0-3%) as very high risk according to KDIGO. History of tuberculosis (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.66-8.18; p = 0.001) and schistosomiasis (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.13-5.18; p = 0.02) were associated with CKD. A trend was seen for increasing systolic blood pressure (OR 1.02 per 1 mmHg, 95% CI 1.00-1.03; p = 0.01). Increasing BMI (OR 0.92 per 1kg/m2, 95% CI 0.88-0.96; p = <0.001) and haemoglobin (OR 0.82 per 1g/dL, 95% CI 0.72-0.94; p = 0.004) were associated with risk reduction. Diabetes was associated with albuminuria (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.26-6.00; p = 0.009). In 85% of all CKD cases at least one of the four most common factors (hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, and history of tuberculosis or schistosomiasis) was associated with CKD. A singular associated factor was found in 61%, two in 14%, and ≥3 in 10% of all CKD cases. We observed a high prevalence estimate for CKD and found that both classical cardiovascular and neglected infectious diseases might be associated with CKD in a semi-rural population of SSA. Our finding provides further evidence for the hypothesis that the "double burden" of non-communicable and endemic infectious diseases might affect kidney health in SSA.
Faculties and Departments:03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Public Health > Sozial- und Präventivmedizin > Medical Services (Neumayr)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Medicine > Medical Services (Neumayr)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Medicine > Clinical Research (Reither)
UniBasel Contributors:Reither, Klaus and Hatz, Christoph
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Public Library of Science
e-ISSN:1932-6203
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:22 Nov 2018 12:27
Deposited On:22 Nov 2018 12:27

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