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High proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic Plasmodium vivax infections in a peri-urban area of low transmission in the Brazilian Amazon

Almeida, Anne C. G. and Kuehn, Andrea and Castro, Arthur J. M. and Vitor-Silva, Sheila and Figueiredo, Erick F. G. and Brasil, Larissa W. and Brito, Marcelo A. M. and Sampaio, Vanderson S. and Bassat, Quique and Felger, Ingrid and Tadei, Wanderli P. and Monteiro, Wuelton M. and Mueller, Ivo and Lacerda, Marcus V. G.. (2018) High proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic Plasmodium vivax infections in a peri-urban area of low transmission in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasites and Vectors, 11. p. 194.

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Abstract

Population-based studies conducted in Latin America have shown a high proportion of asymptomatic and submicroscopic malarial infections. Considering efforts aiming at regional elimination, it is important to investigate the role of this asymptomatic reservoir in malaria transmission in peri-urban areas. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and gametocyte burden on symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in the Brazilian Amazon.; Two cross-sectional household surveys (CS) were conducted including all inhabitants in a peri-urban area of Manaus, western Amazonas State, Brazil. Malaria parasites were detected by light microscopy (LM) and qPCR. Sexual stages of Plasmodium spp. were detected by LM and RT-qPCR. A total of 4083 participants were enrolled during the two surveys. In CS1, the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax infections was 4.3% (86/2010) by qPCR and 1.6% (32/2010) by LM. Fifty percent (43/86) of P. vivax infected individuals (qPCR) carried P. vivax gametocytes. In CS2, 3.4% (70/2073) of participants had qPCR-detectable P. vivax infections, of which 42.9% (30/70) of infections were gametocyte positive. The P. vivax parasite density was associated with gametocyte carriage (P < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent of P. vivax infected individuals and 53.4% of P. vivax gametocyte carriers were asymptomatic.; This study confirms a substantial proportion of asymptomatic and submicroscopic P. vivax infections in the study area. Most asymptomatic individuals carried gametocytes and presented low asexual parasitemia. This reservoir actively contributes to malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon, underscoring a need to implement more efficient control and elimination strategies.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology > Molecular Diagnostics (Felger)
UniBasel Contributors:Felger, Ingrid
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1756-3305
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:06 Jul 2018 12:56
Deposited On:02 Jul 2018 11:59

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