C-di-GMP Synthesis: Structural Aspects of Evolution, Catalysis and Regulation

Schirmer, Tilman. (2016) C-di-GMP Synthesis: Structural Aspects of Evolution, Catalysis and Regulation. Journal of molecular biology, 428 (19). pp. 3683-3701.

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Cellular levels of the second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) are determined by the antagonistic activities of diguanylate cyclases and specific phosphodiesterases. In a given bacterial organism, there are often multiple variants of the two enzymes, which are tightly regulated by a variety of external and internal cues due to the presence of specialized sensory or regulatory domains. Dependent on the second messenger level, specific c-di-GMP receptors then control fundamental cellular processes, such as bacterial life style, biofilm formation, and cell cycle control. Here, I review the large body of data on structure-function relationships in diguanylate cyclases. Although the catalytic GGDEF domain is related to the respective domain of adenylate cyclases, the catalyzed intermolecular condensation reaction of two GTP molecules requires the formation of a competent GGDEF dimer with the two substrate molecules juxtaposed. This prerequisite appears to constitute the basis for GGDEF regulation with signal-induced changes within the homotypic dimer of the input domain (PAS, GAF, HAMP, etc.), which are structurally coupled with the arrangement of the GGDEF domains via a rigid coiled-coil linker. Alternatively, phosphorylation of a Rec input domain can drive GGDEF dimerization. Both mechanisms allow modular combination of input and output function that appears advantageous for evolution and rationalizes the striking similarities in domain architecture found in diguanylate cyclases and histidine kinases.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Biozentrum > Structural Biology & Biophysics > Structural Biology (Schirmer)
UniBasel Contributors:Schirmer, Tilman
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:17 Nov 2016 14:16
Deposited On:17 Nov 2016 14:15

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