Design of robust scheduling methodologies for high performance computing

Mohammed, Ali Omar Abdelazim. Design of robust scheduling methodologies for high performance computing. 2019, Doctoral Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.


Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_13628

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Scientific applications are often large, complex, computationally-intensive, and irregular. Loops are often an abundant source of parallelism in scientific applications. Due to the ever-increasing computational needs of scientific applications, high performance computing (HPC) systems have become larger and more complex, offering increased parallelism at multiple hardware levels.
Load imbalance, caused by irregular computational load per task and unpredictable computing system characteristics (system variability), often degrades the performance of applications. Besides, perturbations, such as reduced computing power, network latency availability, or failures, can severely impact the performance of the applications. System variability and perturbations are only expected to increase in future extreme-scale computing systems. Extrapolating the current failure rate to Exascale would result in a failure every 20 minutes. Such failure rate and perturbations would render the computing systems unusable. This doctoral thesis improves the performance of computationally-intensive scientific applications on HPC systems via robust load balancing. Robust scheduling ensures and maintains improved load balanced execution under unpredictable application and system characteristics.
A number of dynamic loop self-scheduling (DLS) techniques have been introduced and successfully used in scientific applications between the 1980s and 2000s. These DLS techniques are not fault-tolerant as they were originally introduced. In this thesis, we identify three major research questions to achieve robust scheduling (1) How to ensure that the DLS techniques employed in scientific applications today adhere to their original design goals and specifications? (2) How to select a DLS technique that will achieve improved performance under perturbations? (3) How to tolerate perturbations during execution and maintain a load balanced execution on HPC systems?
To answer the first question, we reproduced the original experiments that introduced the DLS techniques to verify their present implementation. Simulation is used to reproduce experiments on systems from the past. Realistic simulation induces a similar analysis and conclusions to the analysis of the native results. To this end, we devised an approach for bridging the native and simulative executions of parallel applications on HPC systems. This simulation approach is used to reproduce scheduling experiments on past and present systems to verify the implementation of DLS techniques.
Given the multiple levels of parallelism offered by the present HPC systems, we analyzed the load imbalance in scientific applications, from computer vision, astrophysics, and mathematical kernels, at both thread and process levels. This analysis revealed a significant interplay between thread level and process level load balancing. We found that dynamic load balancing at the thread level propagates to the process level and vice versa. However, the best application performance is only achieved by two-level dynamic load balancing.
Next, we examined the performance of applications under perturbations. We found that the most robust DLS technique does not deliver the best performance under various perturbations. The most efficient DLS technique changes by changing the application, the system, or perturbations during execution. This signifies the algorithm selection problem in the DLS. We leveraged realistic simulations to address the algorithm selection problem of scheduling under perturbations via a simulation assisted approach (SimAS), which answers the second question. SimAS dynamically selects DLS techniques that improve the performance depending on the application, system, and perturbations during the execution.
To answer the third question, we introduced a robust dynamic load balancing (rDLB) approach for the robust self-scheduling of scientific applications under failures (question 3). rDLB proactively reschedules already allocated tasks and requires no detection of perturbations. rDLB tolerates up to P −1 processor failures (P is the number of processors allocated to the application) and boosts the flexibility of applications against nonfatal perturbations, such as reduced availability of resources.
This thesis is the first to provide insights into the interplay between thread and process level dynamic load balancing in scientific applications. Verified DLS techniques, SimAS, and rDLB are integrated into an MPI-based dynamic load balancing library (DLS4LB), which supports thirteen DLS techniques, for robust dynamic load balancing of scientific applications on HPC systems. Using the methods devised in this thesis, we improved the performance of scientific applications by up to 21% via two-level dynamic load balancing. Under perturbations, we enhanced their performance by a factor of 7 and their flexibility by a factor of 30. This thesis opens up the horizons into understanding the interplay of load balancing between various levels of software parallelism and lays the ground for robust multilevel scheduling for the upcoming Exascale HPC systems and beyond.
Advisors:Ciorba, Florina M. and Wolf, Felix
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Mathematik und Informatik > Informatik > High Performance Computing (Ciorba)
UniBasel Contributors:Mohammed, Ali Omar Abdelazim and Ciorba, Florina M.
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis Subtype:Doctoral Thesis
Thesis no:13628
Thesis status:Complete
Number of Pages:1 Online-Ressource (xxi, 229 Seiten)
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Last Modified:30 Jul 2020 04:30
Deposited On:29 Jul 2020 12:41

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