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Supramolecular Explorations: Exhibiting the Extent of Extended Cationic Cyclophanes

Dale, Edward J. and Vermeulen, Nicolaas A. and Juríček, Michal and Barnes, Jonathan C. and Young, Ryan M. and Wasielewski, Michael R. and Stoddart, J. Fraser. (2016) Supramolecular Explorations: Exhibiting the Extent of Extended Cationic Cyclophanes. Accounts of Chemical Research, 49 (2). pp. 262-273.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/52034/

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Abstract

Acting as hosts, cationic cyclophanes, consisting of π-electron-poor bipyridinium units, are capable of entering into strong donor–acceptor interactions to form host–guest complexes with various guests when the size and electronic constitution are appropriately matched. A synthetic protocol has been developed that utilizes catalytic quantities of tetrabutylammonium iodide to make a wide variety of cationic pyridinium-based cyclophanes in a quick and easy manner. Members of this class of cationic cyclophanes with  box like geometries, dubbed  Ex n Box m 4+ for short, have been prepared by altering a number of variables: (i)  n , the number of “horizontal”  p -phenylene spacers between adjoining pyridinium units, to modulate the “length” of the cavity; (ii)  m , the number of “vertical”  p -phenylene spacers, to modulate the “width” of the cavity; and (iii) the aromatic linkers, namely, 1,4-di- and 1,3,5-trisubstituted units for the construction of macrocycles ( ExBoxes ) and macrobicycles ( ExCages ), respectively. This Account serves as an exploration of the properties that emerge from these structural modifications of the pyridinium-based hosts, coupled with a call for further investigation into the wealth of properties inherent in this class of compounds. By variation of only the aforementioned components, the role of these cationic receptors covers ground that spans (i) synthetic methodology, (ii) extraction and sequestration, (iii) catalysis, (iv) molecular electronics, (v) physical organic chemistry, and (vi) supramolecular chemistry.  Ex 1 Box 4+ (or simply  ExBox 4+ ) has been shown to be a multipurpose receptor capable of binding a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while also being a suitable component in switchable mechanically interlocked molecules. Additionally, the electronic properties of some host–guest complexes allow the development of artificial photosystems.  Ex 2 Box 4+ boasts the ability to bind both π-electron-rich and -poor aromatic guests in different binding sites located within the same cavity.  ExBox 2 4+ forms complexes with C 60 in which discrete arrays of aligned fullerenes result in single cocrystals, leading to improved material conductivities. When the substitution pattern of the  Ex n Box 4+ series is changed to 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzenoid cores, the hexacationic  cage like compound, termed  ExCage 6+ , exhibits different kinetics of complexation with guests of varying sizes—a veritable playground for physical organic chemists. The organization of functionality with respect to structure becomes valuable as the number of analogues continues to grow. With each of these minor structural modifications, a wealth of properties emerge, begging the question as to what discoveries await and what properties will be realized with the continued exploration of this area of supramolecular chemistry based on a unique class of receptor molecules.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Chemie > Chemie > Molecular Devices and Materials (Mayor)
UniBasel Contributors:Juricek, Michal
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN:0001-4842
e-ISSN:1520-4898
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Identification Number:
Last Modified:18 Jan 2017 15:10
Deposited On:18 Jan 2017 15:10

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