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The effect of iron-fortified complementary food and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on anaemia in 12- to 36-month-old children : a cluster-randomised controlled trial

Glinz, Dominik and Hurrell, Richard F. and Ouattara, Mamadou and Zimmermann, Michael B. and Brittenham, Gary M. and Adiossan, Lukas G. and Righetti, Aurélie A. and Seifert, Burkhardt and Diakité, Victorine G. and Utzinger, Jürg and N'Goran, Eliézer K. and Wegmüller, Rita. (2015) The effect of iron-fortified complementary food and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on anaemia in 12- to 36-month-old children : a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Malaria journal, Vol. 14 , 347.

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Abstract

Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children.; A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4).; After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb >11.0 g/dl) was 82.1 %. After 9 months, IPT decreased the odds of anaemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.46 [95 % CI 0.23-0.91]; P = 0.023), whereas iron-fortified CF did not (OR, 0.85 [95 % CI 0.43-1.68]; P = 0.68), although ID (plasma ferritin >30 μg/l) was decreased markedly in children receiving iron fortified CF (OR, 0.19 [95 % CI 0.09-0.40]; P > 0.001).; IPT alone only modestly decreased anaemia, but neither IPT nor iron fortified CF significantly improved Hb concentration after 9 months. Additionally, IPT did not augment the effect of the iron fortified CF. CF fortified with highly bioavailable iron improved iron status but not Hb concentration, despite three-monthly IPT of malaria. Thus, further research is necessary to develop effective combination strategies to prevent and treat anaemia in malaria endemic regions.; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; identifier NCT01634945; registered on July 3, 2012.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Eco System Health Sciences > Health Impact Assessment (Utzinger)
UniBasel Contributors:Utzinger, Jürg
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1475-2875
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:31 Dec 2015 10:58
Deposited On:06 Nov 2015 10:21

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