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Microanatomy and Development of the Dwarf Male of Symbion pandora (Phylum Cycliophora) : New Insights from Ultrastructural Investigation Based on Serial Section Electron Microscopy

Neves, Ricardo Cardoso and Reichert, Heinrich. (2015) Microanatomy and Development of the Dwarf Male of Symbion pandora (Phylum Cycliophora) : New Insights from Ultrastructural Investigation Based on Serial Section Electron Microscopy. PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, H. 4 , e0122364.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A6373589

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Abstract

Cycliophorans have a complex life cycle that involves several sexual and asexual stages. One of the sexual stages is the 40 μm-long dwarf male, which is among the smallest free-living metazoans. Although the dwarf male has a highly complex body plan, this minute organism is composed of a very low number of somatic cells (~50). The developmental processes that give rise to this unique phenotype are largely unknown. Here we use high resolution serial block face-scanning electron microscopy to analyze the anatomy and morphogenesis of three cycliophoran dwarf males at different developmental stages ranging from internal bud to mature male. The anatomical and morphological features of the mature dwarf male stage reported here largely correspond to those reported in earlier studies. Interestingly, the organs that typically characterize the anatomy of the mature dwarf male, e.g., muscles, brain, testis and glands, are already formed in the young male. However, there are striking differences between the mature male and young male stages at the level of cellular architecture. Thus, while the young male stage, like the internal bud stage, possesses approximately 200 nucleated cells, the mature male stage comprises only around 50 nucleated cells; muscle and epidermal cells of the mature male lack nuclei. Moreover, the total body volume of the mature male is only 63% of the body of the young male implying that the maturation of the young male into a mature male involves a marked reduction of internal body volume, mainly by massive nuclei loss. Our comparative analysis of these dwarf male specimens reveals unprecedented insight into the striking morphological and developmental differences that characterize these highly miniaturized male stages both at the level of body organization and at the level of cellular ultrastructure.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Biozentrum > Former Organization Units Biozentrum > Molecular Zoology (Reichert)
UniBasel Contributors:Reichert, Heinrich
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:Public Library of Science
e-ISSN:1932-6203
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:31 Aug 2018 06:38
Deposited On:08 May 2015 08:45

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