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Exposure to multiple parasites is associated with the prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-saharan Africa

Kamuyu, Gathoni and Bottomley, Christian and Mageto, James and Lowe, Brett and Wilkins, Patricia P. and Noh, John C. and Nutman, Thomas B. and Ngugi, Anthony K. and Odhiambo, Rachael and Wagner, Ryan G. and Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina and Owusu-Agyei, Seth and Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth and Masanja, Honorati and Osier, Faith H. A. and Odermatt, Peter and Newton, Charles R. and Study of Epidemiology of Epilepsy in Demographic Sites group, . (2014) Exposure to multiple parasites is associated with the prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-saharan Africa. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, Vol. 8, H. 5 , e2908.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A6271946

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Abstract

Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa.; A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.52-2.58, p>0.001), Toxocara canis (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.23-1.87, p>0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.04-1.56, p = 0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.30-2.24, p>0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI = 1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas.; This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Eco System Health Sciences > Helminths and Health (Odermatt)
UniBasel Contributors:Odermatt, Peter
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1935-2727
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:31 Dec 2015 10:56
Deposited On:15 Aug 2014 07:16

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