Massierer, Maike. Trace zero varieties in cryptography : optimal representation and index calculus. 2014, Doctoral Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Abstract
The trace zero variety associated to an elliptic or hyperelliptic curve is an abelian variety defined over a finite field F_q. Its F_qrational points yield a finite group, the trace zero subgroup of the degree zero Picard group of the original curve, consisting of all points of trace zero with respect to some field extension F_\{q^n\}/F_q of prime degree n. This group has been proposed for use in cryptographic systems based on the discrete logarithm problem by Frey, since the group arithmetic is particularly fast, and for use in pairingbased cryptosystems by Rubin and Silverberg, since it produces particularly secure pairings. In this thesis, we study two aspects of using trace zero subgroups in cryptography: optimalsize representation of the elements and the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem.\
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For the efficient use of memory and bandwidth, one desires an optimalsize representation of the elements of trace zero subgroups, i.e. a representation whose size matches the size of the group. We propose two such representations. The first one builds on an equation for the trace zero subgroup of an elliptic curve that we derive from Semaev's summation polynomials. It can be made practical for small values of n. The second one is via the coefficients of a rational function, and it works for trace zero subgroups of elliptic and hyperelliptic curves of any genus, with respect to a base field extension of any prime degree. For each representation, we present efficient compression and decompression algorithms (to compute the representation, and to recover a full point from its representation), and complement them with implementation results. \
We discuss in detail the practically relevant cases of small genus and extension degree, and we compare with the other known compression methods of Naumann, Lange, and Silverberg. Both representations that we propose are compatible with scalar multiplication of points, and they are the first representations with this property.\
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We also investigate the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem in trace zero subgroups. For this purpose, we propose an index calculus algorithm to compute discrete logarithms in these groups, following the approach of Gaudry for index calculus in abelian varieties of small dimension. We make the algorithm explicit for small values of $n$ and study its complexity as well as its practical performance with the help of our own Magma implementation. Finally, we compare this approach with other possible attacks on the discrete logarithm problem in trace zero subgroups and draw some general conclusions on the suitability of these groups for cryptographic systems.}
\
For the efficient use of memory and bandwidth, one desires an optimalsize representation of the elements of trace zero subgroups, i.e. a representation whose size matches the size of the group. We propose two such representations. The first one builds on an equation for the trace zero subgroup of an elliptic curve that we derive from Semaev's summation polynomials. It can be made practical for small values of n. The second one is via the coefficients of a rational function, and it works for trace zero subgroups of elliptic and hyperelliptic curves of any genus, with respect to a base field extension of any prime degree. For each representation, we present efficient compression and decompression algorithms (to compute the representation, and to recover a full point from its representation), and complement them with implementation results. \
We discuss in detail the practically relevant cases of small genus and extension degree, and we compare with the other known compression methods of Naumann, Lange, and Silverberg. Both representations that we propose are compatible with scalar multiplication of points, and they are the first representations with this property.\
\
We also investigate the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem in trace zero subgroups. For this purpose, we propose an index calculus algorithm to compute discrete logarithms in these groups, following the approach of Gaudry for index calculus in abelian varieties of small dimension. We make the algorithm explicit for small values of $n$ and study its complexity as well as its practical performance with the help of our own Magma implementation. Finally, we compare this approach with other possible attacks on the discrete logarithm problem in trace zero subgroups and draw some general conclusions on the suitability of these groups for cryptographic systems.}
Advisors:  Gorla, Elisa 

Committee Members:  Lange, Tanja 
Faculties and Departments:  05 Faculty of Science > Departement Mathematik und Informatik > Ehemalige Einheiten Mathematik & Informatik > Algebra (Gorla) 
UniBasel Contributors:  Gorla, Elisa 
Item Type:  Thesis 
Thesis Subtype:  Doctoral Thesis 
Thesis no:  10782 
Thesis status:  Complete 
Bibsysno:  Link to catalogue 
Number of Pages:  125 S. 
Language:  English 
Identification Number: 

Last Modified:  22 Jan 2018 15:51 
Deposited On:  12 May 2014 12:27 
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