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Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas : results from the ESCAPE study

Cyrys, J. and Eeftens, M. and Heinrich, J. and Ampe, C. and Armengaud, A. and Beelen, R. and Bellander, T. and Beregszaszai, T. and Birk, M. and Cesaroni, G. and Cirach, M. and de Hoogh, K. and de Nazelle, A. and de Vocht, F. and Declercq, C. and Dedele, A. and Dimakopoulou, K. and Eriksen, K. and Galassi, C. and Grazuleviciene, R. and Grivas, G. and Gruzieva, O. and Hagenbjörk, Gustafsson and Hoffmann, B. and Iakovides, M. and Ineichen, A. and Krämer, U. and Lanki, T. and Lozano, P. and Madsen, C. and Meliefste, K. and Modig, L. and Mölter, A. and Mosler, G. and Nieuwenhuijsen, M. and Nonnemacher, M. and Oldenwening, M. and Peters, A. and Pontet, S. and Probst-Hensch, N. and Quass, U. and Raaschou-Nielsen, O. and Ranzi, A. and Sugiri, D. and Stephanou, E. G. and Taimisto, P. and Tsai, M. Y. and Vaskövi, E. and Villani, S. and Wang, M. and Brunekreef, B. and Hoek, G.. (2012) Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas : results from the ESCAPE study. Atmospheric environment, 62. pp. 374-390.

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Abstract

The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe.
In all study areas NO2 and NOx were measured using standardized methods between October 2008 and April 2011. On average, 41 sites were selected per study area, including regional and urban background as well as street sites. The measurements were conducted in three different seasons, using Ogawa badges. Average concentrations for each site were calculated after adjustment for temporal variation using data obtained from a routine monitor background site.
Substantial spatial variability was found in NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within study areas; 40% of the overall NO2 variance was attributable to the variability between study areas and 60% to variability within study areas. The corresponding values for NOx were 30% and 70%. The within-area spatial variability was mostly determined by differences between street and urban background concentrations. The street/urban background concentration ratio for NO2 varied between 1.09 and 3.16 across areas. The highest median concentrations were observed in Southern Europe, the lowest in Northern Europe.
In conclusion, we found significant contrasts in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations between and especially within 36 study areas across Europe. Epidemiological long-term studies should therefore consider different approaches for better characterization of the intra-urban contrasts, either by increasing of the number of monitors or by modelling. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Environmental Exposures and Health
UniBasel Contributors:Ineichen, Alex and Tsai, Ming and Probst Hensch, Nicole
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:Pergamon
ISSN:1352-2310
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:05 Mar 2019 09:17
Deposited On:19 Jul 2013 07:40

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