Vertebrate limb development : moving from classical morphogen gradients to an integrated 4-dimensional patterning system

Bénazet, Jean-Denis and Zeller, Rolf. (2009) Vertebrate limb development : moving from classical morphogen gradients to an integrated 4-dimensional patterning system. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, Vol. 1 , a001339.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A6003875

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A wealth of classical embryological manipulation experiments taking mainly advantage of the chicken limb buds identified the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) as the respective ectodermal and mesenchymal key signaling centers coordinating proximodistal (PD) and anteroposterior (AP) limb axis development. These experiments inspired Wolpert's French flag model, which is a classic among morphogen gradient models. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis in the mouse identified retinoic acid as proximal signal, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as the essential instructive signals produced by AER and ZPA, respectively. Recent studies provide good evidence that progenitors are specified early with respect to their PD and AP fates and that morpho-regulatory signaling is also required for subsequent proliferative expansion of the specified progenitor pools. The determination of particular fates seems to occur rather late and depends on additional signals such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which indicates that cells integrate signaling inputs over time and space. The coordinate regulation of PD and AP axis patterning is controlled by an epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling system, in which transcriptional regulation of the BMP antagonist Gremlin1 integrates inputs from the BMP, SHH, and FGF pathways. Vertebrate limb-bud development is controlled by a 4-dimensional (4D) patterning system integrating positive and negative regulatory feedback loops, rather than thresholds set by morphogen gradients.
Faculties and Departments:03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Biomedizin > Division of Anatomy > Developmental Genetics (Zeller/Zuniga)
UniBasel Contributors:Zeller, Rolf
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:01 Mar 2013 11:14
Deposited On:01 Mar 2013 11:11

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