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Mass screening and treatment on the basis of results of a Plasmodium falciparum-specific rapid diagnostic test did not reduce malaria incidence in Zanzibar

Cook, Jackie and Xu, Weiping and Msellem, Mwinyi and Vonk, Marlotte and Bergström, Beatrice and Gosling, Roly and Al-Mafazy, Abdul-Wahid and McElroy, Peter and Molteni, Fabrizio and Abass, Ali K. and Garimo, Issa and Ramsan, Mahdi and Ali, Abdullah and Mårtensson, Andreas and Björkman, Anders. (2015) Mass screening and treatment on the basis of results of a Plasmodium falciparum-specific rapid diagnostic test did not reduce malaria incidence in Zanzibar. Journal of infectious diseases, Vol. 211, no. 9. S. 1476-1483.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A6381851

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Abstract

Seasonal increases in malaria continue in hot spots in Zanzibar. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT) may help reduce the reservoir of infection; however, it is unclear whether rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect a sufficient proportion of low-density infections to influence subsequent transmission.; Two rounds of MSAT using Plasmodium falciparum-specific RDT were conducted in 5 hot spots (population, 12 000) in Zanzibar in 2012. In parallel, blood samples were collected on filter paper for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Data on confirmed malarial parasite infections from health facilities in intervention and hot spot control areas were monitored as proxy for malaria transmission.; Approximately 64% of the population (7859) were screened at least once. P. falciparum prevalence, as measured by RDT, was 0.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], .1%-.3%) in both rounds, compared with PCR measured prevalences (for all species) of 2.5% (95% CI, 2.1%-2.9%) and 3.8% (95% CI, 3.2%-4.4%) in rounds 1 and 2, respectively. Two fifths (40%) of infections detected by PCR included non-falciparum species. Treatment of RDT-positive individuals (4% of the PCR-detected parasite carriers) did not reduce subsequent malaria incidence, compared with control areas.; Highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostic tools for detection of all human malaria species are needed to make MSAT an effective strategy in settings where malaria elimination programs are in the pre-elimination phase.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Health Interventions > Malaria Interventions (Lengeler)
UniBasel Contributors:Molteni, Fabrizio
Item Type:Article, refereed
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0022-1899
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:05 Jun 2015 08:53
Deposited On:05 Jun 2015 08:53

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