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Capnocytophaga canimorsus : genomic characterization of a specialised host-dependent lifestyle and implications in pathogenesis

Manfredi, Pablo. Capnocytophaga canimorsus : genomic characterization of a specialised host-dependent lifestyle and implications in pathogenesis. 2012, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_10191

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Abstract

Here is presented the complete 2,571,405-bp genome sequence of Capnocytophaga canimorsus strain 5 (Cc5), a strain that was isolated from a fatal septicaemia. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes supports the inclusion of C. canimorsus into the Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum and indicates close relationships with environmental flavobacteria as Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Gramella forsetii. In addition, relative phylogenetic topology of Capnocytophaga species shows that C. canimorsus share more sequence similarities with human host associated Capnocytophaga species than species from the latter group among themselves (e.g. C. gingivalis and C. ochracea).
As compared to other Capnocytophaga, C.canimorsus seems to have differentiated by large-scale horizontal gene transfer compensated by gene losses. Consistently with a relatively reduced genome size, genome scale metabolic modelling suggested a reduced global pleiotropy as it is illustrated by the presence of a split TCA cycle or by the metabolic uncoupling of the hexoses and N-acetylhexosamines pathways. In addition and in agreement with the high content in HCO3- and Na+ ions in saliva, we predicted a CO2-dependent fumarate respiration coupled to a Na+ ions gradient based respiratory chain in Cc5. All together these observations draw the picture of an organism with a high degree of specialization to a relatively homeostatic host environment.
Unexpectedly, the genome of Cc5 did not encode classical complex virulence functions as T3SSs or T4SSs. However it exhibits a very high relative number of predicted surface-exposed lipoproteins. Many of them are encoded within 13 different putative polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), a hallmark of the CFB group, discovered in the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. When Cc5 bacteria were grown on Hek293 cells, at least 12 PULs were expressed and detected by mass spectrometry. Semi-quantitative analysis of the Cc5 surfome identified 73 surface exposed proteins among which 40 were lipoproteins and accounted for 76% of the total quantification. Interestingly, 28 proteins (38%) were encoded by 9 different PULs and corresponded to more than 54% of total MS-flying peptides detected. A systematic knockout analysis of the 13 PULs revealed that 6 PULs are involved in growth during cell culture infections with most dramatic effect observed for ΔPUL5. Proteins encoded by PUL5, one of the most abundant PULs (12%), turned out to be devoted to foraging glycans from N-linked glycoproteins as fetuin but also IgG. It was not only essential for growth on cells but also for survival in mice and in fresh human serum therefore representing a new type of virulence factor.
Further characterization of the PUL5 deglycosylation mechanism revealed that deglycosylation is achieved by a large surface complex spanning the outer membrane and consisting of five PUL5 encoded Gpd proteins and the Siac sialidase. GpdCDEF contribute to the binding of glycoproteins at the bacterial surface while GpdG is a β-endo-glycosidase cleaving the N-linked oligosaccharide after the first N-linked GlcNAc residue. We demonstrate that GpdD, -G, -E and -F are surface-exposed outer membrane lipoproteins while GpdC resembles a TonB-dependent OM transporter and presumably imports oligosaccharides into the periplasm after cleavage from glycoproteins. Terminal sialic acid residues of the oligosaccharide are then removed by SiaC in the periplasm. Finally, degradation of the oligosaccharide proceeds sequentially from the desialylated non reducing end by the action of periplasmic exoglycosidases, including β-galactosidases, β-N-Acetylhexosaminidases and α-mannosidases.
Genome sequencing of additional C. canimorsus strains have been performed with the only use of second generation sequencing methods (Solexa and 454). Two assembling approaches were developed in order to enhance assembly capacities of pre-existing tools. Draft assemblies of the three pathogenic human blood isolates C. canimorsus 2 (three contigs), C. canimorsus 11 (152 contigs) and C. canimorsus 12 (63 contigs) are presented here. Comparative genomics including genomes of four available human hosted Capnocytophaga species stressed C. canimorsus exclusively conserved features as an oxidative respiratory chain and an oxidative stress resistance or the presence of a Cc5 specific PULs content. Therefore we propose these features as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of C. canimorsus.
Advisors:Cornelis, R.
Committee Members:Dehio, Christoph
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Biozentrum > Former Organization Units Biozentrum > Molecular Microbiology (Cornelis)
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis no:10191
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:150 S.
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 10:51
Deposited On:27 Nov 2012 13:09

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