# Parity effects in a Luttinger liquid : diamagnetic and paramagnetic ground states

Loss, D.. (1992) Parity effects in a Luttinger liquid : diamagnetic and paramagnetic ground states. Physical review letters, Vol. 69, H. 2. pp. 343-346.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A5254799

The concept of a Luttinger liquid in 1 D is extended to include twisted boundary conditions on a ring and mesoscopic parity effects due to evenness and oddness of the particle number N0. Using Haldanes notion of topological excitations, a proof of Leggetts conjecture is presented, stating that the ground state of interacting 1 D quantum systems is diamagnetic or paramagnetic depending on the parity of N0. The persistent currents produced by an Aharonov-Bohm flux are calculated and shown to have period and amplitude that are in agreement with recent experiments.