The empirical support for the radical cure strategy for eliminating Plasmodium vivax in China

Yang, G. J. and Shang, L. Y. and Zhou, X. N. and Lee, T. E. and Bi, B. and White, M. and Smith, T. A. and Penny, M. A.. (2022) The empirical support for the radical cure strategy for eliminating Plasmodium vivax in China. BMC Med, 20. p. 17.

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BACKGROUND: With the recent certification by World Health Organization that the People's Republic of China is malaria-free, it is timely to consider how elimination of malaria was completed in People's Republic of China over the last 7 decades. Of the four widespread species of human malaria, Plasmodium vivax was the last to be eliminated by the national program of China. Understanding the incubation periods and relapses patterns of P. vivax through historical data from China is relevant for planning disease elimination in other malaria-endemic countries, with residual P. vivax malaria. METHODS: We collated data from both published and unpublished malaria parasite inoculation experiments conducted between 1979 and 1988 with parasites from different regions of the People's Republic of China. The studies had at least two years of follow-up. We categorized P. vivax incubation patterns via cluster analysis and investigated relapse studies by adapting a published within-host relapse model for P. vivax temperate phenotypes. Each model was fitted using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm initialized by hierarchical model-based agglomerative clustering. RESULTS: P. vivax parasites from the seven studies of five southern and central provinces in the People's Republic of China covering geographies ranging from the south temperate to north tropical zones. The parasites belonged to two distinct phenotypes: short- (10-19 days) or long-incubation (228-371 days). The larger the sporozoite inoculation, the more likely short incubation periods were observed, and with more subsequent relapses (Spearman's rank correlation between the number of inoculated sporozoites and the number of relapses of 0.51, p-value = 0.0043). The median of the posterior distribution for the duration of the first relapse interval after primary infection was 168.5 days (2.5% quantile: 89.7; 97.5% quantile: 227.69 days). The predicted survival proportions from the within-host model fit well to the original relapse data. The within-host model also captures the hypnozoite activation rates and relapse frequencies, which consequently influences the transmission possibility of P. vivax. CONCLUSIONS: Through a within-host model, we demonstrate the importance of clearance of hypnozoites. A strategy of two rounds of radical hypnozoite clearance via mass drug administration (MDA) deployed during transmission (summer and autumn) and non-transmission (late spring) seasons had a pronounced effect on outbreaks during the malaria epidemics in China. This understanding can inform malaria control strategies in other endemic countries with similar settings.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Disease Modelling > Disease Modelling and Intervention Dynamics (Penny)
UniBasel Contributors:Yang, Guojing and Lee, Tamsin and Smith, Thomas A. and Penny, Melissa
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:28 Dec 2022 09:56
Deposited On:28 Dec 2022 09:56

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