In vitro antischistosomal activity of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra extracts

Taljaard, L. and Probst, A. and Tornow, R. and Keiser, J. and Haynes, R. K. and van der Kooy, F.. (2022) In vitro antischistosomal activity of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra extracts. Phytomed Plus, 2 (3). p. 100279.

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Background Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, imposes substantial health and economic burdens on impoverished groups living in predominantly rural areas. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug available for treatment, and it is not completely efficacious. Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra infusions were proposed to possess antischistosomal activities in a recently retracted publication of a clinical trial, leading to our investigation in vitro. Objective The objective was to identify the main components of the infusions and evaluate the in vitro antischistosomal activities of traditionally prepared infusions as well as hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the infusions of A. afra and A. annua. Methods Infusions of A. afra and A. annua were submitted to liquid-liquid partitioning with n-hexane and DCM to provide samples for in vitro bioassays using newly transformed schistosomulas (NTS) and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms obtained from infected mice. The viability of the NTS and adult S. mansoni was visually scored via microscopic readout. Results Nine phytochemicals comprising coumarins and organic acids were identified. A. afra and A. annua infusions and extracts possess potent in vitro antischistosomal activities against NTS, at 100 μg/ml. However, the A. afra infusions exhibited better activities against NTS than the A. annua infusion. The A. afra hexane- and DCM extracts presented IC50 values that are similar to PZQ (1.5 μg/ml) and approximately five times lower than the comparison drug artesunate (11.6 μg/ml) against NTS. Low IC50 values for both these extracts were also obtained in phenotypic assays with adult S. mansoni. Conclusion A. afra shows greater antischistosomal potential than A. annua. Thus, further studies are necessary to identify the active molecule(s) responsible for the notable antischistosomal activity of A. afra.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology (MPI) > Helminth Drug Development (Keiser)
UniBasel Contributors:Probst, Alexandra and Tornow, Robert and Keiser, Jennifer
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:27 Dec 2022 22:14
Deposited On:27 Dec 2022 22:14

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