Sub-lethal aquatic doses of pyriproxyfen may increase pyrethroid resistance in malaria mosquitoes

Opiyo, M. A. and Ngowo, H. S. and Mapua, S. A. and Mpingwa, M. and Nchimbi, N. and Matowo, N. S. and Majambere, S. and Okumu, F. O.. (2021) Sub-lethal aquatic doses of pyriproxyfen may increase pyrethroid resistance in malaria mosquitoes. PLoS One, 16 (3). e0248538.

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Official URL: https://edoc.unibas.ch/89323/

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BACKGROUND: Pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth hormone mimic is widely used as a larvicide and in some second-generation bed nets, where it is combined with pyrethroids to improve impact. It has also been evaluated as a candidate for auto-dissemination by adult mosquitoes to control Aedes and Anopheles species. We examined whether PPF added to larval habitats of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors can modulate levels of resistance among emergent adult mosquitoes. METHODOLOGY: Third-instar larvae of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles arabiensis (both laboratory-reared and field-collected) were reared in different PPF concentrations, between 1x10-9 milligrams active ingredient per litre of water (mgAI/L) and 1x10-4 mgAI/L, or no PPF at all. Emergent adults escaping these sub-lethal exposures were tested using WHO-standard susceptibility assays on pyrethroids (0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin), carbamates (0.1% bendiocarb) and organochlorides (4% DDT). Biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance was investigated by pre-exposure to 4% PBO. Bio-efficacies of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, Olyset(R) and PermaNet 2.0 were also examined against adult mosquitoes with or without previous aquatic exposure to PPF. RESULTS: Addition of sub-lethal doses of PPF to larval habitats of pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis, consistently resulted in significantly reduced mortalities of emergent adults when exposed to pyrethroids, but not to bendiocarb or DDT. Mortality rates after exposure to Olyset(R) nets, but not PermaNet 2.0 were also reduced following aquatic exposures to PPF. Pre-exposure to PBO followed by permethrin or deltamethrin resulted in significant increases in mortality, compared to either insecticide alone. CONCLUSIONS: Partially-resistant mosquitoes exposed to sub-lethal aquatic concentrations of PPF may become more resistant to pyrethroids than they already are without such pre-exposures. Studies should be conducted to examine whether field applications of PPF, either by larviciding or other means actually exacerbates pyrethroid-resistance in areas where signs of such resistance already exist in wild the vector populations. The studies should also investigate mechanisms underlying such magnification of resistance, and how this may impact the potential of PPF-based interventions in areas with pyrethroid resistance.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
UniBasel Contributors:Matowo, Nancy
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
ISSN:1932-6203 (Electronic)1932-6203 (Linking)
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:21 Dec 2022 09:13
Deposited On:21 Dec 2022 09:13

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