Impact of the Characteristics of Quantum Chemical Databases on Machine Learning Predictions of Tautomerization Energies

Vazquez-Salazar, Luis Itza and Boittier, Eric D. and Unke, Oliver T. and Meuwly, Markus. (2021) Impact of the Characteristics of Quantum Chemical Databases on Machine Learning Predictions of Tautomerization Energies. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 17 (8). pp. 4769-4785.

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An essential aspect for adequate predictions of chemical properties by machine learning models is the database used for training them. However, studies that analyze how the content and structure of the databases used for training impact the prediction quality are scarce. In this work, we analyze and quantify the relationships learned by a machine learning model (Neural Network) trained on five different reference databases (QM9, PC9, ANI-1E, ANI-1, and ANI-1x) to predict tautomerization energies from molecules in Tautobase. For this, characteristics such as the number of heavy atoms in a molecule, number of atoms of a given element, bond composition, or initial geometry on the quality of the predictions are considered. The results indicate that training on a chemically diverse database is crucial for obtaining good results and also that conformational sampling can partly compensate for limited coverage of chemical diversity. The overall best-performing reference database (ANI-1x) performs on average by 1 kcal/mol better than PC9, which, however, contains about 2 orders of magnitude fewer reference structures. On the other hand, PC9 is chemically more diverse by a factor of similar to 5 as quantified by the number of atom-in-molecule-based fragments (amons) it contains compared with the ANI family of databases. A quantitative measure for deficiencies is the Kullback-Leibler divergence between reference and target distributions. It is explicitly demonstrated that when certain types of bonds need to be covered in the target database (Tautobase) but are undersampled in the reference databases, the resulting predictions are poor. Examples of this include the poor performance of all databases analyzed to predict C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) double bonds close to heteroatoms and azoles containing N-N and N-O bonds. Analysis of the results with a Tree MAP algorithm provides deeper understanding of specific deficiencies in predicting tautomerization energies by the reference datasets due to inadequate coverage of chemical space. Capitalizing on this information can be used to either improve existing databases or generate new databases of sufficient diversity for a range of machine learning (ML) applications in chemistry.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Chemie > Chemie > Physikalische Chemie (Meuwly)
UniBasel Contributors:Meuwly, Markus
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:American Chemical Society
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:24 Jan 2022 11:12
Deposited On:24 Jan 2022 11:10

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