Slow recovery from voluntary hyperventilation in panic disorder

Wilhelm, F. H. and Gerlach, A. L. and Roth, W. T.. (2001) Slow recovery from voluntary hyperventilation in panic disorder. Psychosomatic medicine, 63 (4). pp. 638-649.

[img] PDF
Restricted to Repository staff only


Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A5250367

Downloads: Statistics Overview


OBJECTIVE: Because hyperventilation has figured prominently in theories of panic disorder (PD) but not of social phobia (SP), we compared predictions regarding diagnosis-specific differences in psychological and physiological measures before, during, and after voluntary hyperventilation. METHOD: Physiological responses were recorded in 14 patients with PD, 24 patients with SP, and 24 controls during six cycles of 1-minute of fast breathing alternating with 1 minute of recovery, followed by 3 minutes of fast breathing and 10 minutes of recovery. Speed of fast breathing was paced by a tone modulated at 18 cycles/minute, and depth by feedback aimed at achieving an end-tidal pCO2 of 20 mm Hg. These values were reached equally by all groups. RESULTS: During fast breathing, PD and SP patients reported more anxiety than controls, and their feelings of dyspnea and suffocation increased more from baseline. Skin conductance declined more slowly in PD over the six 1-minute fast breathing periods. At the end of the final 10-minute recovery, PD patients reported more awareness of breathing, dyspnea, and fear of being short of breath, and their pCO2s, heart rates, and skin conductance levels had returned less toward normal levels than in other groups. Their lower pCO2s were associated with a higher frequency of sigh breaths. CONCLUSIONS: PD and SP patients report more distress than controls to equal amounts of hypocapnia, but PD differ from SP patients and controls in having slower symptomatic and physiological recovery. This finding was not specifically predicted by hyperventilation, cognitive-behavioral, or suffocation alarm theories of PD.
Faculties and Departments:07 Faculty of Psychology
07 Faculty of Psychology > Departement Psychologie > Ehemalige Einheiten Psychologie > Abteilung Klinische Psychologie und Psychiatrie
07 Faculty of Psychology > Departement Psychologie > Ehemalige Einheiten Psychologie > Psychophysiologie (Wilhelm)
UniBasel Contributors:Wilhelm, Frank H
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Related URLs:
Identification Number:
edoc DOI:
Last Modified:28 Sep 2017 15:30
Deposited On:22 Mar 2012 13:43

Repository Staff Only: item control page