Effect of divalent ions on cariogenic biofilm formation

Steiger, Elena Laura and Muelli, Julia Rahel and Braissant, Olivier and Waltimo, Tuomas and Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika. (2020) Effect of divalent ions on cariogenic biofilm formation. BMC Microbiology, 20 (1). p. 287.

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Official URL: https://edoc.unibas.ch/78918/

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Background Divalent cations are able to interact with exopolysaccharides (EPS) and thus are capable to modify the structure and composition of dental biofilm. At the moment, little is known about the adsorption of metals by cariogenic EPS; thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of divalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and zinc) on the growth and biofilm formation of mutans streptococci and on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite as well as to investigate their binding to the bacterial EPS. Results S. mutansstrains used in this study show the highest tolerance towards calcium of the ions tested. Growth parameters showed no differences to control condition for both strains up to 100 mM; revealing natural tolerance to higher concentration of calcium in the surroundings. Although excessive levels of calcium did not impair the growth parameters, it also did not have a positive effect on biofilm formation or its binding affinity to EPS. Magnesium-saturated environment proved to be counterproductive as strains were able to dissolve more Ca(2+)from the tooth surface in the presence of magnesium, therefore releasing excessive amounts of Ca(2+)in the environment and leading to the progression of the disease. Thus, this supports the idea of self-regulation, when more Ca(2+)is released, more calcium is bound to the biofilm strengthening its structure and however, also less is left for remineralization. Zinc inhibited bacterial adhesion already at low concentrations and had a strong antibacterial effect on the strains as well as on calcium dissolution; leading to less biofilm and less EPS. Additionally, Zn(2+)had almost always the lowest affinity to all EPS; thus, the unbound zinc could also still remain in the surrounding environment and keep its antimicrobial properties. Conclusion It is important to maintain a stable relationship between calcium, magnesium and zinc as excessive concentrations of one can easily destroy the balance between the three in cariogenic environment and lead to progression of the disease.
Faculties and Departments:03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Biomedical Engineering
03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Biomedical Engineering > Biomechanics and Biomaterials
UniBasel Contributors:Braissant, Olivier
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:BioMed Central
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:30 Dec 2020 10:09
Deposited On:30 Dec 2020 10:09

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