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Patterns of pesticide usage in agriculture in rural Tanzania call for integrating agricultural and public health practices in managing insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors

Matowo, Nancy S. and Tanner, Marcel and Munhenga, Givemore and Mapua, Salum A. and Finda, Marceline and Utzinger, Jürg and Ngowi, Vera and Okumu, Fredros O.. (2020) Patterns of pesticide usage in agriculture in rural Tanzania call for integrating agricultural and public health practices in managing insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors. Malaria journal, 19. p. 257.

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Abstract

Unrestricted use of pesticides in agriculture is likely to increase insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Unfortunately, strategies for managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and public health sectors lack integration. This study explored the types and usage of agricultural pesticides, and awareness and management practices among retailers and farmers in Ulanga and Kilombero districts in south-eastern Tanzania, where Anopheles mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids.; An exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach was employed. First, a survey to characterize pesticide stocks was conducted in agricultural and veterinary (agrovet) retail stores. Interviews to assess general knowledge and practices regarding agricultural pesticides were performed with 17 retailers and 30 farmers, followed by a survey involving 427 farmers. Concurrently, field observations were done to validate the results.; Lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin (both pyrethroids) and imidacloprids (neonicotinoids) were the most common agricultural insecticides sold to farmers. The herbicide glyphosate (amino-phosphonates) (59.0%), and the fungicides dithiocarbamate and acylalanine (54.5%), and organochlorine (27.3%) were also readily available in the agrovet shops and widely used by farmers. Although both retailers and farmers had at least primary-level education and recognized pesticides by their trade names, they lacked knowledge on pest control or proper usage of these pesticides. Most of the farmers (54.4%, n = 316) relied on instructions from pesticides dealers. Overall, 93.7% (400) farmers practised pesticides mixing in their farms, often in close proximity to water sources. One-third of the farmers disposed of their pesticide leftovers (30.0%, n = 128) and most farmers discarded empty pesticide containers into rivers or nearby bushes (55.7%, n = 238).; Similarities of active ingredients used in agriculture and malaria vector control, poor pesticide management practices and low-levels of awareness among farmers and pesticides retailers might enhance the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. This study emphasizes the need for improving awareness among retailers and farmers on proper usage and management of pesticides. The study also highlights the need for an integrated approach, including coordinated education on pesticide use, to improve the overall management of insecticide resistance in both agricultural and public health sectors.
Faculties and Departments:03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Public Health > Sozial- und Präventivmedizin > Malaria Vaccines (Tanner)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Health Interventions > Malaria Vaccines (Tanner)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Former Units within Swiss TPH > Health Impact Assessment (Utzinger)
UniBasel Contributors:Matowo, Nancy and Tanner, Marcel and Utzinger, Jürg
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1475-2875
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:28 Jul 2020 07:58
Deposited On:28 Jul 2020 07:58

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