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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania: the prospective Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort

Arpagaus, Armon and Franzeck, Fabian Christoph and Sikalengo, George and Ndege, Robert and Mnzava, Dorcas and Rohacek, Martin and Hella, Jerry and Reither, Klaus and Battegay, Manuel and Glass, Tracy Renee and Paris, Daniel Henry and Bani, Farida and Rajab, Omary Ngome and Weisser, Maja and Kiularco Study Group, . (2020) Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania: the prospective Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort. PLoS ONE, 15 (3). e0229875.

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Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, diagnosis and management of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) remains a major challenge. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiology and risk factors for poor outcome of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in a rural setting in Tanzania.; We included PLHIV >18 years of age enrolled into the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO) from 2013 to 2017. We assessed the diagnosis of tuberculosis by integrating prospectively collected clinical and microbiological data. We calculated prevalence- and incidence rates and used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the association of risk factors in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) with a combined endpoint of lost to follow-up (LTFU) and death.; We included 3,129 subjects (64.5% female) with a median age of 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-46) and a median CD4+ cell count of 229/μl (IQR 94-421) at baseline. During the median follow-up of 1.25 years (IQR 0.46-2.85), 574 (18.4%) subjects were diagnosed with tuberculosis, whereof 175 (30.5%) had an extrapulmonary manifestation. Microbiological evidence by Acid-Fast-Bacillus stain (AFB-stain) or Xpert® MTB/RIF was present in 178/483 (36.9%) patients with pulmonary and in 28/175 (16.0%) of patients with extrapulmonary manifestations, respectively. Incidence density rates for pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB and EPTB were 17.9/1000person-years (py) (95% CI 14.2-22.6) and 5.8/1000 py (95% CI 4.0-8.5), respectively. The combined endpoint of death and LTFU was observed in 1058 (33.8%) patients, most frequently in the subgroup of EPTB (47.2%). Patients with EPTB had a higher rate of the composite outcome of death/LTFU after TB diagnosis than with PTB [HR 1.63, (1.14-2.31); p = 0.006]. The adjusted hazard ratios [HR (95% CI)] for death/LTFU in EPTB patients were significantly increased for patients aged >45 years [HR 1.95, (1.15-3.3); p = 0.013], whereas ART use was protective [HR 0.15, (0.08-0.27); p <0.001].; Extrapulmonary tuberculosis was a frequent manifestation in this cohort of PLHIV. The diagnosis of EPTB in the absence of histopathology and mycobacterial culture remains challenging even with availability of Xpert® MTB/RIF. Patients with EPTB had increased rates of mortality and LTFU despite early recognition of the disease after enrollment.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Medicine (MED) > Clinical Research (Reither)
UniBasel Contributors:Arpagaus, Armon and Hella, Jerry and Rohacek, Martin and Reither, Klaus and Glass, Tracy and Paris, Daniel Henry and Weisser, Maja
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Public Library of Science
e-ISSN:1932-6203
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:11 Mar 2020 08:18
Deposited On:11 Mar 2020 08:18

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