High genomic diversity and heterogenous origins of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in household settings represent a challenge to reducing transmission in low-income settings

Montealegre, Maria Camila and Talavera Rodríguez, Alba and Roy, Subarna and Hossain, Muhammed Iqbal and Islam, Mohammad Aminul and Lanza, Val F. and Julian, Timothy R.. (2020) High genomic diversity and heterogenous origins of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in household settings represent a challenge to reducing transmission in low-income settings. mSphere, 5 (1). 00704-00719.

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Escherichia coli; is present in multiple hosts and environmental compartments as a normal inhabitant, temporary or persistent colonizer, and as a pathogen. Transmission of; E. coli; between hosts and with the environment is considered to occur more often in areas with poor sanitation. We performed whole-genome comparative analyses on 60; E. coli; isolates from soils and fecal sources (cattle, chickens, and humans) in households in rural Bangladesh. Isolates from household soils were in multiple branches of the reconstructed phylogeny, intermixed with isolates from fecal sources. Pairwise differences between all strain pairs were large (minimum, 189 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]), suggesting high diversity and heterogeneous origins of the isolates. The presence of multiple virulence and antibiotic resistance genes is indicative of the risk that; E. coli; from soil and feces represent for the transmission of variants that pose potential harm to people. Analysis of the accessory genomes of the Bangladeshi; E. coli; relative to; E. coli; genomes available in NCBI identified a common pool of accessory genes shared among; E. coli; isolates in this geographic area. Together, these findings indicate that in rural Bangladesh, a high level of; E. coli; in soil is likely driven by contributions from multiple and diverse; E. coli; sources (human and animal) that share an accessory gene pool relatively unique to previously published; E. coli; genomes. Thus, interventions to reduce environmental pathogen or antimicrobial resistance transmission should adopt integrated One Health approaches that consider heterogeneous origins and high diversity to improve effectiveness and reduce prevalence and transmission.; IMPORTANCE; Escherichia coli; is reported in high levels in household soil in low-income settings. When; E. coli; reaches a soil environment, different mechanisms, including survival, clonal expansion, and genetic exchange, have the potential to either maintain or generate; E. coli; variants with capabilities of causing harm to people. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing to identify that; E. coli; isolates collected from rural Bangladeshi household soils, including pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant variants, are diverse and likely originated from multiple diverse sources. In addition, we observed specialization of the accessory genome of this Bangladeshi; E. coli; compared to; E. coli; genomes available in current sequence databases. Thus, to address the high level of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant; E. coli; transmission in low-income settings, interventions should focus on addressing the heterogeneous origins and high diversity.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
UniBasel Contributors:Julian, Timothy
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:05 Mar 2020 12:31
Deposited On:05 Mar 2020 12:31

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