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High cure rates and tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kibaha and Kigoma, Tanzania

Mandara, Celine I. and Francis, Filbert and Chiduo, Mercy G. and Ngasala, Billy and Mandike, Renata and Mkude, Sigsbert and Chacky, Frank and Molteni, Fabrizio and Njau, Ritha and Mohamed, Ally and Warsame, Marian and Ishengoma, Deus S.. (2019) High cure rates and tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kibaha and Kigoma, Tanzania. Malaria journal, 18. p. 99.

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Abstract

The Tanzanian National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and its partners have been implementing regular therapeutic efficacy studies (TES) to monitor the performance of different drugs used or with potential use in Tanzania. However, most of the recent TES focused on artemether-lumefantrine, which is the first-line anti-malarial for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Data on the performance of other artemisinin-based combinations is urgently needed to support timely review and changes of treatment guidelines in case of drug resistance to the current regimen. This study was conducted at two NMCP sentinel sites (Kibaha, Pwani and Ujiji, Kigoma) to assess the efficacy and safety of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), which are the current alternative artemisinin-based combinations in Tanzania.; This was a single-arm prospective evaluation of the clinical and parasitological responses of ASAQ and DP for directly observed treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Children aged 6 months to 10 years and meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled and treated with either ASAQ or DP. In each site, patients were enrolled sequentially; thus, enrolment of patients for the assessment of one artemisinin-based combination was completed before patients were recruited for assessment of the second drugs. Follow-up was done for 28 or 42 days for ASAQ and DP, respectively. The primary outcome was PCR corrected cure rates while the secondary outcome was occurrence of adverse events (AEs) or serious adverse events (SAEs).; Of the 724 patients screened at both sites, 333 (46.0%) were enrolled and 326 (97.9%) either completed the 28/42 days of follow-up, or attained any of the treatment outcomes. PCR uncorrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) for DP on day 42 was 98.8% and 75.9% at Kibaha and Ujiji, respectively. After PCR correction, DP's ACPR was 100% at both sites. For ASAQ, no parasite recurrence occurred giving 100% ACPR on day 28. Only one patient in the DP arm (1.1%) from Ujiji had parasites on day 3. Of the patients recruited (n = 333), 175 (52.6%) had AEs with 223 episodes (at both sites) in the two treatment groups. There was no SAE and the commonly reported AE episodes (with > 5%) included, cough, running nose, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and fever.; Both artemisinin-based combinations had high cure rates with PCR corrected ACPR of 100%. The two drugs had adequate safety with no SAE and all AEs were mild, and not associated with the anti-malarials. Continued TES is critical to monitor the performance of nationally recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy and supporting evidence-based review of malaria treatment policies. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, No. NCT03431714.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Health Interventions > Malaria Interventions (Lengeler)
UniBasel Contributors:Molteni, Fabrizio
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1475-2875
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:02 Apr 2019 12:08
Deposited On:02 Apr 2019 12:08

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