Carbonyl reductases from Daphnia are regulated by redox cycling compounds

Ebert, Bettina and Ebert, Dieter and Koebsch, Katrin and Maser, Edmund and Kisiela, Michael. (2018) Carbonyl reductases from Daphnia are regulated by redox cycling compounds. Febs Journal, 285 (15). pp. 2869-2887.

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Oxidative stress is a major source of reactive carbonyl compounds that can damage cellular macromolecules, leading to so-called carbonyl stress. Aside from endogenously formed carbonyls, including highly reactive short-chain aldehydes and diketones, air pollutants derived from diesel exhaust like 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) can amplify oxidative stress by redox cycling, causing tissue damage. Carbonyl reductases (CRs), which are inducible in response to ROS, represent a fundamental enzymatic defense mechanism against oxidative stress. While commonly two carbonyl reductases (CBR1 and CBR3) are found in mammalian genomes, invertebrate model organisms like Drosophila melanogaster express no CR but a functional homolog to human CBR1, termed sniffer. The microcrustacean Daphnia is an ideal model organism to investigate the function of CRs because of its unique equipment with even four copies of the CR gene (CR1, CR2, CR3, CR4) in addition to one sniffer gene. Cloning and catalytic characterization of two carbonyl reductases CR1 and CR3 from D.magna and D.pulex arenata revealed that both proteins reductively metabolize aromatic dicarbonyls (e.g., menadione, PQ) and aliphatic -diketones (e.g., 2,3-hexanedione), while sugar-derived aldehydes (methylglyoxal, glyoxal) and lipid peroxidation products such as acrolein and butanal were poor substrates, indicating no physiological function in the metabolism of short-chain aldehydes. Treatment of D.magna with redox cyclers like menadione and the pesticide paraquat led to an upregulation of CR1 and CR3 mRNA, suggesting arole in oxidative stress defense. Further studies are needed to investigate their potential to serve as novel biomarkers for oxidative stress in Daphnia.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Umweltwissenschaften > Integrative Biologie > Evolutionary Biology (Ebert)
UniBasel Contributors:Ebert, Dieter
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:05 Apr 2019 15:12
Deposited On:21 Feb 2019 16:08

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