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Enabling secure communications: theoretical tools for quantum repeater systems

Ho, Melvyn. Enabling secure communications: theoretical tools for quantum repeater systems. 2018, Doctoral Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_12976

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Abstract

As children, whispering into the ear of a friend in the presence of others allows us to pass a secret without interception, and forms one of the simplest attempts at secret communications we can employ. However, sending secret messages becomes deeply nontrivial over long distances.
A solution for two parties to communicate securely is to encrypt and decrypt a message with two identical strings of bits, one for each party. In this case, the security of the encrypted message is provable and does not rely on assumptions on computational power. Quantum theory provides a clear solution for the initial distribution of these identical bit strings through Quantum Key Distribution. However, once long distances are involved, the corresponding loss involved in direct transmission ruins the effectiveness of quantum key distribution by reducing the effective rate exponentially with the distance.
To circumvent the losses involved in direct transmission, quantum repeater architectures have been proposed. We present our contributions towards three aspects of quantum repeater systems in this thesis. We ensure conditions for implementing quantum repeaters with atomic ensembles, explore the option of optomechanical systems for implementing quantum repeaters and verify the success of completed quantum repeater protocols.
In the first part of this thesis, we show how we can ensure conditions for the successful implementation of quantum repeater systems with atomic ensembles. These quantum repeater systems are formed with 1-dimensional networks, where the nodes are made up of quantum memories connected by means of single photons. This requires memories that are highly efficient. Also, if quantum repeater systems are implemented with hybrid resources, tunable photon waveforms will be desirable. We propose a protocol to implement quantum memories with atomic ensembles using a clear recipe to optimise the efficiency. We also demonstrate that a cold ensemble of Rubidium-87 can act as an efficient tunable source of single photons, along with flexibility in the produced temporal shapes.
Next, we show how we can explore alternative options for the nodes of quantum repeater systems. We focus on optomechanical oscillators, and recognise that they can also be used as quantum memories. We present a witness to certify that this memory successfully operates in the quantum regime.
Finally, we focus on the verification of successfully implemented quantum repeater protocols. This verification will be essential for certifying that quantum repeater systems operate as instructed. We use only local homodyne measurements to witness the success of the network, and find that the witness is robust to loss.
We thus present distinct contributions towards three important aspects of quantum repeater systems. As far as a full-fledged quantum repeater system might seem to be right now, we have faith that our work brings the field of quantum-enabled secure communications forward.
Advisors:Sangouard, Nicolas and Afzelius, Mikael
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Physik > Quantum Physics (Sangouard)
UniBasel Contributors:Sangouard, Nicolas
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis Subtype:Doctoral Thesis
Thesis no:12976
Thesis status:Complete
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:1 Online-Ressource (viii, 106, 2 Seiten)
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:22 Mar 2019 05:30
Deposited On:21 Mar 2019 12:01

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