Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl and Isern, Jordi and Perego, Albino and von Ballmoos, Peter. (2018) Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae. SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS, 214 (3). p. 62.

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Official URL: https://edoc.unibas.ch/68597/

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We present the status and open problems of nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions of both types, responsible for the production of the intermediate mass, Fe-group and heavier elements (with the exception of the main s-process). Constraints from observations can be provided through individual supernovae (SNe) or their remnants (e.g. via spectra and gamma-rays of decaying unstable isotopes) and through surface abundances of stars which witness the composition of the interstellar gas at their formation. With a changing fraction of elements heavier than He in these stars (known as metallicity) the evolution of the nucleosynthesis in galaxies over time can be determined. A complementary way, related to gamma-rays from radioactive decays, is the observation of positrons released in beta(+)-decays, as e.g. from Al-26, Ti-44, Ni-56,Ni-57 and possibly further isotopes of their decay chains (in competition with the production of e(+)e(-) pairs in acceleration shocks from SN remnants, pulsars, magnetars or even of particle physics origin). We discuss (a) the role of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism for the composition of intermediate mass, Fe-group (and heavier?) ejecta, (b) the transition from neutron stars to black holes as the final result of the collapse of massive stars, and the relation of the latter to supernovae, faint supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts/hypernovae, (c) Type Ia supernovae and their nucleosynthesis (e.g. addressing the Mn-55 puzzle), plus (d) further constraints from galactic evolution, gamma-ray and positron observations. This is complemented by the role of rare magneto-rotational supernovae (related to magnetars) in comparison with the nucleosynthesis of compact binary mergers, especially with respect to forming the heaviest r-process elements in galactic evolution.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Former Organization Units Physics > Theoretische Physik Astrophysik (Thielemann)
UniBasel Contributors:Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Further Journal Contribution
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal item
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Last Modified:08 Oct 2019 07:35
Deposited On:08 Oct 2019 07:35

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