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Life on the edge: active microbial communities in the Kryos MgCl(2-)brine basin at very low water activity

Steinle, Lea and Knittel, Katrin and Felber, Nicole and Casalino, Claudia and de Lange, Gert and Tessarolo, Chiara and Stadnitskaia, Alina and Damste, Jaap S. S. and Zopfi, Jakob and Lehmann, Moritz F. and Treude, Tina and Niemann, Helge. (2018) Life on the edge: active microbial communities in the Kryos MgCl(2-)brine basin at very low water activity. The ISME Journal, 12 (6). pp. 1414-1426.

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Official URL: https://edoc.unibas.ch/68504/

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Abstract

The Kryos Basin is a deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (34.98°N 22.04° E). It is fi lled with brine of re-dissolved Messinian evaporites and is nearly saturated with MgCl 2 -equivalents, which makes this habitat extremely challenging for life. The strong density difference between the anoxic brine and the overlying oxic Mediterranean seawater impedes mixing, giving rise to a narrow chemocline. Here, we investigate the microbial community structure and activities across the seawater - brine interface using a combined biogeochemical, next-generation sequencing, and lipid biomarker approach. Within the interface, we detected fatty acids that were distinctly 13 C-enriched when compared to other fatty acids. These likely originated from sul fi de-oxidizing bacteria that fi x carbon via the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. In the lower part of the interface, we also measured elevated rates of methane oxidation, probably mediated by aerobic methanotrophs under micro-oxic conditions. Sulfate reduction rates increased across the interface and were highest within the brine, providing fi rst evidence that sulfate reducers (likely Desulfovermiculus and Desulfobacula ) thrive in the Kryos Basin at a water activity of only ~0.4 A w . Our results demonstrate that a highly specialized microbial community in the Kryos Basin has adapted to the poly-extreme conditions of a DHAB with nearly saturated MgCl 2 brine, extending the known environmental range where microbial life can persist.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Umweltwissenschaften > Geowissenschaften > Geochemie Stoffkreisläufe (Lehmann)
UniBasel Contributors:Lehmann, Moritz F
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Nature
ISSN:1751-7362
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Identification Number:
Last Modified:12 May 2020 13:27
Deposited On:12 May 2020 13:27

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