Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Metoprolol Metabolism and Use of Metoprolol as a CYP2D6 Phenotyping Probe Drug

Berger, Benjamin and Bachmann, Fabio and Duthaler, Urs and Krähenbühl, Stephan and Haschke, Manuel. (2018) Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Involved in Metoprolol Metabolism and Use of Metoprolol as a CYP2D6 Phenotyping Probe Drug. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9. p. 774.

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Metoprolol is used for phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, a CYP isoform considered not to be inducible by inducers of the CYP2C, CYP2B, and CYP3A families such as rifampicin. While assessing CYP2D6 activity under basal conditions and after pre-treatment with rifampicin; in vivo; , we surprisingly observed a drop in the metoprolol/α-OH-metoprolol clearance ratio, suggesting CYP2D6 induction. To study this problem, we performed; in vitro; investigations using HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes (before and after treatment with 20 μM rifampicin), human liver microsomes, and CYP3A4-overexpressing supersomes. While mRNA expression levels of CYP3A4 showed a 15- to 30-fold increase in both cell models, mRNA of CYP2D6 was not affected by rifampicin. 1'-OH-midazolam formation (reflecting CYP3A4 activity) increased by a factor of 5-8 in both cell models, while the formation of α-OH-metoprolol increased by a factor of 6 in HepaRG cells and of 1.4 in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibition studies using human liver microsomes showed that CYP3A4, 2B6, and 2C9 together contributed 19.0 ± 2.6% (mean ± 95%CI) to O-demethylation, 4.0 ± 0.7% to α-hydroxylation, and 7.6 ± 1.7% to N-dealkylation of metoprolol. In supersomes overexpressing CYP3A4, metoprolol was α-hydroxylated in a reaction inhibited by the CYP3A4-specific inhibitor ketoconazole, but not by the CYP2D6-specific inhibitor quinidine. We conclude that metoprolol is not exclusively metabolized by CYP2D6. CYP3A4, 2B6, and 2C9, which are inducible by rifampicin, contribute to α-hydroxylation, O-demethylation, and N-dealkylation of metoprolol. This contribution is larger after CYP induction by rifampicin but is too small to compromise the usability of metoprolol α-hydroxylation for CYP2D6 phenotyping.
Faculties and Departments:03 Faculty of Medicine
03 Faculty of Medicine > Bereich Medizinische Fächer (Klinik) > Klinische Pharmakologie > Klinische Pharmakologie (Krähenbühl)
03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Klinische Forschung > Bereich Medizinische Fächer (Klinik) > Klinische Pharmakologie > Klinische Pharmakologie (Krähenbühl)
05 Faculty of Science > Departement Pharmazeutische Wissenschaften > Ehemalige Einheiten Pharmazie > Pharmakologie (Krähenbühl)
UniBasel Contributors:Krähenbühl, Stephan
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:16 Apr 2020 13:11
Deposited On:16 Apr 2020 13:11

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