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Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Roth, Gregory A and Abate, Degu and Abate, Kalkidan Hassen and Abay, Solomon M and Abbafati, Cristiana and Abbasi, Nooshin and Abbastabar, Hedayat and Abd-Allah, Foad and Abdela, Jemal and Abdelalim, Ahmed and Abdollahpour, Ibrahim and Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi and Abebe, Haftom Temesgen and Abebe, Molla and Abebe, Zegeye and Abejie, Ayenew Negesse and Abera, Semaw F and Abil, Olifan Zewdie and Abraha, Haftom Niguse and Abrham, Aklilu Roba and Abu-Raddad, Laith Jamal and Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou and Acharya, Dilaram and Adamu, Abdu A and Adebayo, Oladimeji M and Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji and Adekanmbi, Victor and Adetokunboh, Olatunji O and Adhena, Beyene Meressa and Adib, Mina G and Admasie, Amha and Afshin, Ashkan and Agarwal, Gina and Agesa, Kareha M and Agrawal, Anurag and Agrawal, Sutapa and Ahmadi, Alireza and Ahmadi, Mehdi and Ahmed, Muktar Beshir and Ahmed, Sayem and Aichour, Amani Nidhal and Aichour, Ibtihel and Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine and Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil and Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola and Akseer, Nadia and Al-Aly, Ziyad and Al-Eyadhy, Ayman and Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M and Alahdab, Fares and Alam, Khurshid and Alam, Tahiya and Alebel, Animut and Alene, Kefyalew Addis and Alijanzadeh, Mehran and Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza and Aljunid, Syed Mohamed and Alkerwi, Ala'a and Alla, François and Allebeck, Peter and Alonso, Jordi and Altirkawi, Khalid and Alvis-Guzman, Nelson and Amare, Azmeraw T and Aminde, Leopold N and Amini, Erfan and Ammar, Walid and Amoako, Yaw Ampem and Anber, Nahla Hamed and Andrei, Catalina Liliana and Androudi, Sofia and Animut, Megbaru Debalkie and Anjomshoa, Mina and Ansari, Hossein and Ansha, Mustafa Geleto and Antonio, Carl Abelardo T and Anwari, Palwasha and Aremu, Olatunde and Ärnlöv, Johan and Arora, Amit and Arora, Monika and Artaman, Al and Aryal, Krishna K and Asayesh, Hamid and Asfaw, Ephrem Tsegay and Ataro, Zerihun and Atique, Suleman and Atre, Sachin R and Ausloos, Marcel and Avokpaho, Euripide F G A and Awasthi, Ashish and Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala and Ayele, Yohanes and Ayer, Rakesh and Azzopardi, Peter S and Babazadeh, Arefeh and Bacha, Umar and Badali, Hamid and Badawi, Alaa and Bali, Ayele Geleto and Ballesteros, Katherine E and Banach, Maciej and Banerjee, Kajori and Bannick, Marlena S and Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar and Barboza, Miguel A and Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn and Bärnighausen, Till Winfried and Barquera, Simon and Barrero, Lope H and Bassat, Quique and Basu, Sanjay and Baune, Bernhard T and Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw and Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad and Bedi, Neeraj and Beghi, Ettore and Behzadifar, Masoud and Behzadifar, Meysam and Béjot, Yannick and Bekele, Bayu Begashaw and Belachew, Abate Bekele and Belay, Ezra and Belay, Yihalem Abebe and Bell, Michelle L and Bello, Aminu K and Bennett, Derrick A and Bensenor, Isabela M and Berman, Adam E and Bernabe, Eduardo and Bernstein, Robert S and Bertolacci, Gregory J and Beuran, Mircea and Beyranvand, Tina and Bhalla, Ashish and Bhattarai, Suraj and Bhaumik, Soumyadeeep and Bhutta, Zulfiqar A and Biadgo, Belete and Biehl, Molly H and Bijani, Ali and Bikbov, Boris and Bilano, Ver and Bililign, Nigus and Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat and Bisanzio, Donal and Biswas, Tuhin and Blacker, Brigette F and Basara, Berrak Bora and Borschmann, Rohan and Bosetti, Cristina and Bozorgmehr, Kayvan and Brady, Oliver J and Brant, Luisa C and Brayne, Carol and Brazinova, Alexandra and Breitborde, Nicholas J K and Brenner, Hermann and Briant, Paul Svitil and Britton, Gabrielle and Brugha, Traolach and Busse, Reinhard and Butt, Zahid A and Callender, Charlton S K H and Campos-Nonato, Ismael R and Campuzano Rincon, Julio Cesar and Cano, Jorge and Car, Mate and Cárdenas, Rosario and Carreras, Giulia and Carrero, Juan J and Carter, Austin and Carvalho, Félix and Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A and Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline and Castle, Chris D and Castro, Clara and Castro, Franz and Catalá-López, Ferrán and Cerin, Ester and Chaiah, Yazan and Chang, Jung-Chen and Charlson, Fiona J and Chaturvedi, Pankaj and Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia and Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel and Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe and Chitheer, Abdulaal and Chowdhury, Rajiv and Christensen, Hanne and Christopher, Devasahayam J and Chung, Sheng-Chia and Cicuttini, Flavia M and Ciobanu, Liliana G and Cirillo, Massimo and Cohen, Aaron J and Cooper, Leslie Trumbull and Cortesi, Paolo Angelo and Cortinovis, Monica and Cousin, Ewerton and Cowie, Benjamin C and Criqui, Michael H and Cromwell, Elizabeth A and Crowe, Christopher Stephen and Crump, John A and Cunningham, Matthew and Daba, Alemneh Kabeta and Dadi, Abel Fekadu and Dandona, Lalit and Dandona, Rakhi and Dang, Anh Kim and Dargan, Paul I and Daryani, Ahmad and Das, Siddharth K and Gupta, Rajat Das and Neves, José Das and Dasa, Tamirat Tesfaye and Dash, Aditya Prasad and Davis, Adrian C and Davis Weaver, Nicole and Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil and Davletov, Kairat and De La Hoz, Fernando Pio and De Neve, Jan-Walter and Degefa, Meaza Girma and Degenhardt, Louisa and Degfie, Tizta T and Deiparine, Selina and Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam and Demtsu, Balem Betsu and Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar and Deribe, Kebede and Dervenis, Nikolaos and Des Jarlais, Don C and Dessie, Getenet Ayalew and Dey, Subhojit and Dharmaratne, Samath D and Dicker, Daniel and Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese and Ding, Eric L and Dirac, M Ashworth and Djalalinia, Shirin and Dokova, Klara and Doku, David Teye and Donnelly, Christl A and Dorsey, E Ray and Doshi, Pratik P and Douwes-Schultz, Dirk and Doyle, Kerrie E and Driscoll, Tim R and Dubey, Manisha and Dubljanin, Eleonora and Duken, Eyasu Ejeta and Duncan, Bruce B and Duraes, Andre R and Ebrahimi, Hedyeh and Ebrahimpour, Soheil and Edessa, Dumessa and Edvardsson, David and Eggen, Anne Elise and El Bcheraoui, Charbel and El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa and El-Khatib, Ziad and Elkout, Hajer and Ellingsen, Christian Lycke and Endres, Matthias and Endries, Aman Yesuf and Er, Benjamin and Erskine, Holly E and Eshrati, Babak and Eskandarieh, Sharareh and Esmaeili, Reza and Esteghamati, Alireza and Fakhar, Mahdi and Fakhim, Hamed and Faramarzi, Mahbobeh and Fareed, Mohammad and Farhadi, Farzaneh and Farinha, Carla Sofia E sá and Faro, Andre and Farvid, Maryam S and Farzadfar, Farshad and Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein and Feigin, Valery L and Feigl, Andrea B and Fentahun, Netsanet and Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad and Fernandes, Eduarda and Fernandes, Joao C and Ferrari, Alize J and Feyissa, Garumma Tolu and Filip, Irina and Finegold, Samuel and Fischer, Florian and Fitzmaurice, Christina and Foigt, Nataliya A and Foreman, Kyle J and Fornari, Carla and Frank, Tahvi D and Fukumoto, Takeshi and Fuller, John E and Fullman, Nancy and Fürst, Thomas and Furtado, João M and Futran, Neal D and Gallus, Silvano and Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L and Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A and Gardner, William M and Gebre, Abadi Kahsu and Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde and Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay and Gebremichael, Bereket and Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo and Gelano, Tilayie Feto and Geleijnse, Johanna M and Genova-Maleras, Ricard and Geramo, Yilma Chisha Dea and Gething, Peter W and Gezae, Kebede Embaye and Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul and Ghadimi, Reza and Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil and Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam and Ghimire, Mamata and Gibney, Katherine B and Gill, Paramjit Singh and Gill, Tiffany K and Gillum, Richard F and Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed and Giroud, Maurice and Giussani, Giorgia and Goenka, Shifalika and Goldberg, Ellen M and Goli, Srinivas and Gómez-Dantés, Hector and Gona, Philimon N and Gopalani, Sameer Vali and Gorman, Taren M and Goto, Atsushi and Goulart, Alessandra C and Gnedovskaya, Elena V and Grada, Ayman and Grosso, Giuseppe and Gugnani, Harish Chander and Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena and Guo, Yuming and Gupta, Prakash C and Gupta, Rahul and Gupta, Rajeev and Gupta, Tanush and Gutiérrez, Reyna Alma and Gyawali, Bishal and Haagsma, Juanita A and Hafezi-Nejad, Nima and Hagos, Tekleberhan B and Hailegiyorgis, Tewodros Tesfa and Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa and Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin and Haj-Mirzaian, Arya and Hamadeh, Randah R and Hamidi, Samer and Handal, Alexis J and Hankey, Graeme J and Harb, Hilda L and Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai and Haro, Josep Maria and Hasan, Mehedi and Hassankhani, Hadi and Hassen, Hamid Yimam and Havmoeller, Rasmus and Hay, Roderick J and Hay, Simon I and He, Yihua and Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar and Hegazy, Mohamed I and Heibati, Behzad and Heidari, Mohsen and Hendrie, Delia and Henok, Andualem and Henry, Nathaniel J and Herteliu, Claudiu and Heydarpour, Fatemeh and Heydarpour, Pouria and Heydarpour, Sousan and Hibstu, Desalegn Tsegaw and Hoek, Hans W and Hole, Michael K and Homaie Rad, Enayatollah and Hoogar, Praveen and Hosgood, H Dean and Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa and Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi and Hostiuc, Mihaela and Hostiuc, Sorin and Hotez, Peter J and Hoy, Damian G and Hsiao, Thomas and Hu, Guoqing and Huang, John J and Husseini, Abdullatif and Hussen, Mohammedaman Mama and Hutfless, Susan and Idrisov, Bulat and Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen and Iqbal, Usman and Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi and Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter and Islam, Nazrul and Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful and Islami, Farhad and Jacobsen, Kathryn H and Jahangiry, Leila and Jahanmehr, Nader and Jain, Sudhir Kumar and Jakovljevic, Mihajlo and Jalu, Moti Tolera and James, Spencer L and Javanbakht, Mehdi and Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra and Jeemon, Panniyammakal and Jenkins, Kathy J and Jha, Ravi Prakash and Jha, Vivekanand and Johnson, Catherine O and Johnson, Sarah C and Jonas, Jost B and Joshi, Ankur and Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy and Jungari, Suresh Banayya and Jürisson, Mikk and Kabir, Zubair and Kadel, Rajendra and Kahsay, Amaha and Kalani, Rizwan and Karami, Manoochehr and Karami Matin, Behzad and Karch, André and Karema, Corine and Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza and Kasaeian, Amir and Kassa, Dessalegn H and Kassa, Getachew Mullu and Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale and Kassebaum, Nicholas J and Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal and Kaul, Anil and Kazemi, Zhila and Karyani, Ali Kazemi and Kazi, Dhruv Satish and Kefale, Adane Teshome and Keiyoro, Peter Njenga and Kemp, Grant Rodgers and Kengne, Andre Pascal and Keren, Andre and Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair and Khader, Yousef Saleh and Khafaei, Behzad and Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif and Khajavi, Alireza and Khalid, Nauman and Khalil, Ibrahim A and Khan, Ejaz Ahmad and Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb and Khan, Muhammad Ali and Khang, Young-Ho and Khater, Mona M and Khoja, Abdullah T and Khosravi, Ardeshir and Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein and Khubchandani, Jagdish and Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A and Kibret, Getiye D and Kidanemariam, Zelalem Teklemariam and Kiirithio, Daniel N and Kim, Daniel and Kim, Young-Eun and Kim, Yun Jin and Kimokoti, Ruth W and Kinfu, Yohannes and Kisa, Adnan and Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna and Kivimäki, Mika and Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo and Kocarnik, Jonathan M and Kochhar, Sonali and Kokubo, Yoshihiro and Kolola, Tufa and Kopec, Jacek A and Koul, Parvaiz A and Koyanagi, Ai and Kravchenko, Michael A and Krishan, Kewal and Kuate Defo, Barthelemy and Kucuk Bicer, Burcu and Kumar, G Anil and Kumar, Manasi and Kumar, Pushpendra and Kutz, Michael J and Kuzin, Igor and Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe and Lad, Deepesh P and Lad, Sheetal D and Lafranconi, Alessandra and Lal, Dharmesh Kumar and Lalloo, Ratilal and Lallukka, Tea and Lam, Jennifer O and Lami, Faris Hasan and Lansingh, Van C and Lansky, Sonia and Larson, Heidi J and Latifi, Arman and Lau, Kathryn Mei-Ming and Lazarus, Jeffrey V and Lebedev, Georgy and Lee, Paul H and Leigh, James and Leili, Mostafa and Leshargie, Cheru Tesema and Li, Shanshan and Li, Yichong and Liang, Juan and Lim, Lee-Ling and Lim, Stephen S and Limenih, Miteku Andualem and Linn, Shai and Liu, Shiwei and Liu, Yang and Lodha, Rakesh and Lonsdale, Chris and Lopez, Alan D and Lorkowski, Stefan and Lotufo, Paulo A and Lozano, Rafael and Lunevicius, Raimundas and Ma, Stefan and Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King and Mackay, Mark T and MacLachlan, Jennifer H and Maddison, Emilie R and Madotto, Fabiana and Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan and Magdy Abd El Razek, Muhammed and Maghavani, Dhaval P and Majdan, Marek and Majdzadeh, Reza and Majeed, Azeem and Malekzadeh, Reza and Malta, Deborah Carvalho and Manda, Ana-Laura and Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia and Manguerra, Helena and Mansournia, Mohammad Ali and Mapoma, Chabila Christopher and Marami, Dadi and Maravilla, Joemer C and Marcenes, Wagner and Marczak, Laurie and Marks, Ashley and Marks, Guy B and Martinez, Gabriel and Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio and Martopullo, Ira and März, Winfried and Marzan, Melvin B and Masci, Joseph R and Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard and Mathur, Manu Raj and Mathur, Prashant and Matzopoulos, Richard and Maulik, Pallab K and Mazidi, Mohsen and McAlinden, Colm and McGrath, John J and McKee, Martin and McMahon, Brian J and Mehata, Suresh and Mehndiratta, Man Mohan and Mehrotra, Ravi and Mehta, Kala M and Mehta, Varshil and Mekonnen, Tefera C and Melese, Addisu and Melku, Mulugeta and Memiah, Peter T N and Memish, Ziad A and Mendoza, Walter and Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese and Mengistu, Getnet and Mensah, George A and Mereta, Seid Tiku and Meretoja, Atte and Meretoja, Tuomo J and Mestrovic, Tomislav and Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane and Miazgowski, Bartosz and Miazgowski, Tomasz and Millear, Anoushka I and Miller, Ted R and Miller-Petrie, Molly Katherine and Mini, G K and Mirabi, Parvaneh and Mirarefin, Mojde and Mirica, Andreea and Mirrakhimov, Erkin M and Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen and Mitiku, Habtamu and Moazen, Babak and Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin and Mohammadi, Moslem and Mohammadifard, Noushin and Mohammed, Mohammed A and Mohammed, Shafiu and Mohan, Viswanathan and Mokdad, Ali H and Molokhia, Mariam and Monasta, Lorenzo and Moradi, Ghobad and Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar and Moradinazar, Mehdi and Moraga, Paula and Morawska, Lidia and Moreno Velásquez, Ilais and Morgado-Da-Costa, Joana and Morrison, Shane Douglas and Moschos, Marilita M and Mouodi, Simin and Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam and Muchie, Kindie Fentahun and Mueller, Ulrich Otto and Mukhopadhyay, Satinath and Muller, Kate and Mumford, John Everett and Musa, Jonah and Musa, Kamarul Imran and Mustafa, Ghulam and Muthupandian, Saravanan and Nachega, Jean B and Nagel, Gabriele and Naheed, Aliya and Nahvijou, Azin and Naik, Gurudatta and Nair, Sanjeev and Najafi, Farid and Naldi, Luigi and Nam, Hae Sung and Nangia, Vinay and Nansseu, Jobert Richie and Nascimento, Bruno Ramos and Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan and Neamati, Nahid and Negoi, Ionut and Negoi, Ruxandra Irina and Neupane, Subas and Newton, Charles R J and Ngalesoni, Frida N and Ngunjiri, Josephine W and Nguyen, Anh Quynh and Nguyen, Grant and Nguyen, Ha Thu and Nguyen, Huong Thanh and Nguyen, Long Hoang and Nguyen, Minh and Nguyen, Trang Huyen and Nichols, Emma and Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini and Nirayo, Yirga Legesse and Nixon, Molly R and Nolutshungu, Nomonde and Nomura, Shuhei and Norheim, Ole F and Noroozi, Mehdi and Norrving, Bo and Noubiap, Jean Jacques and Nouri, Hamid Reza and Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Malihe and Nowroozi, Mohammad Reza and Nyasulu, Peter S and Odell, Christopher M and Ofori-Asenso, Richard and Ogbo, Felix Akpojene and Oh, In-Hwan and Oladimeji, Olanrewaju and Olagunju, Andrew T and Olivares, Pedro R and Olsen, Helen Elizabeth and Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola and Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun and Ong, Kanyin L and Ong, Sok King Sk and Oren, Eyal and Orpana, Heather M and Ortiz, Alberto and Ortiz, Justin R and Otstavnov, Stanislav S and Øverland, Simon and Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo and Özdemir, Raziye and P A, Mahesh and Pacella, Rosana and Pakhale, Smita and Pakhare, Abhijit P and Pakpour, Amir H and Pana, Adrian and Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra and Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai and Parisi, Andrea and Park, Eun-Kee and Parry, Charles D H and Parsian, Hadi and Patel, Shanti and Pati, Sanghamitra and Patton, George C and Paturi, Vishnupriya Rao and Paulson, Katherine R and Pereira, Alexandre and Pereira, David M and Perico, Norberto and Pesudovs, Konrad and Petzold, Max and Phillips, Michael R and Piel, Frédéric B and Pigott, David M and Pillay, Julian David and Pirsaheb, Meghdad and Pishgar, Farhad and Polinder, Suzanne and Postma, Maarten J and Pourshams, Akram and Poustchi, Hossein and Pujar, Ashwini and Prakash, Swayam and Prasad, Narayan and Purcell, Caroline A and Qorbani, Mostafa and Quintana, Hedley and Quistberg, D Alex and Rade, Kirankumar Waman and Radfar, Amir and Rafay, Anwar and Rafiei, Alireza and Rahim, Fakher and Rahimi, Kazem and Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin and Rahman, Mahfuzar and Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur and Rahman, Muhammad Aziz and Rai, Rajesh Kumar and Rajsic, Sasa and Ram, Usha and Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal and Ranjan, Prabhat and Rao, Puja C and Rawaf, David Laith and Rawaf, Salman and Razo-García, Christian and Reddy, K Srinath and Reiner, Robert C and Reitsma, Marissa B and Remuzzi, Giuseppe and Renzaho, Andre M N and Resnikoff, Serge and Rezaei, Satar and Rezaeian, Shahab and Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh and Riahi, Seyed Mohammad and Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P and Rios-Blancas, Maria Jesus and Roba, Kedir Teji and Roberts, Nicholas L S and Robinson, Stephen R and Roever, Leonardo and Ronfani, Luca and Roshandel, Gholamreza and Rostami, Ali and Rothenbacher, Dietrich and Roy, Ambuj and Rubagotti, Enrico and Sachdev, Perminder S and Saddik, Basema and Sadeghi, Ehsan and Safari, Hosein and Safdarian, Mahdi and Safi, Sare and Safiri, Saeid and Sagar, Rajesh and Sahebkar, Amirhossein and Sahraian, Mohammad Ali and Salam, Nasir and Salama, Joseph S and Salamati, Payman and Saldanha, Raphael De Freitas and Saleem, Zikria and Salimi, Yahya and Salvi, Sundeep Santosh and Salz, Inbal and Sambala, Evanson Zondani and Samy, Abdallah M and Sanabria, Juan and Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores and Santomauro, Damian Francesco and Santos, Itamar S and Santos, João Vasco and Milicevic, Milena M Santric and Sao Jose, Bruno Piassi and Sarker, Abdur Razzaque and Sarmiento-Suárez, Rodrigo and Sarrafzadegan, Nizal and Sartorius, Benn and Sarvi, Shahabeddin and Sathian, Brijesh and Satpathy, Maheswar and Sawant, Arundhati R and Sawhney, Monika and Saxena, Sonia and Sayyah, Mehdi and Schaeffner, Elke and Schmidt, Maria Inês and Schneider, Ione J C and Schöttker, Ben and Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth and Schwebel, David C and Schwendicke, Falk and Scott, James G and Sekerija, Mario and Sepanlou, Sadaf G and Serván-Mori, Edson and Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba and Shabaninejad, Hosein and Shackelford, Katya Anne and Shafieesabet, Azadeh and Shahbazi, Mehdi and Shaheen, Amira A and Shaikh, Masood Ali and Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran and Shamsi, Mohammadbagher and Shamsizadeh, Morteza and Sharafi, Kiomars and Sharif, Mehdi and Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi and Sharma, Rajesh and She, Jun and Sheikh, Aziz and Shi, Peilin and Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay and Shigematsu, Mika and Shiri, Rahman and Shirkoohi, Reza and Shiue, Ivy and Shokraneh, Farhad and Shrime, Mark G and Si, Si and Siabani, Soraya and Siddiqi, Tariq J and Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora and Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig and Silberberg, Donald H and Silva, Diego Augusto Santos and Silva, João Pedro and Silva, Natacha Torres Da and Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves and Singh, Jasvinder A and Singh, Narinder Pal and Singh, Prashant Kumar and Singh, Virendra and Sinha, Dhirendra Narain and Sliwa, Karen and Smith, Mari and Sobaih, Badr Hasan and Sobhani, Soheila and Sobngwi, Eugène and Soneji, Samir S and Soofi, Moslem and Sorensen, Reed J D and Soriano, Joan B and Soyiri, Ireneous N and Sposato, Luciano A and Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T and Srinivasan, Vinay and Stanaway, Jeffrey D and Starodubov, Vladimir I and Stathopoulou, Vasiliki and Stein, Dan J and Steiner, Caitlyn and Stewart, Leo G and Stokes, Mark A and Subart, Michelle L and Sudaryanto, Agus and Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale and Sur, Patrick John and Sutradhar, Ipsita and Sykes, Bryan L and Sylaja, P N and Sylte, Dillon O and Szoeke, Cassandra E I and Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael and Tabuchi, Takahiro and Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar and Takahashi, Ken and Tandon, Nikhil and Tassew, Segen Gebremeskel and Taveira, Nuno and Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash and Tekalign, Tigist Gashaw and Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin and Temsah, Mohamad-Hani and Temsah, Omar and Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman and Teshale, Manaye Yihune and Tessema, Belay and Tessema, Gizachew Assefa and Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman and Thirunavukkarasu, Sathish and Thomas, Nihal and Thrift, Amanda G and Thurston, George D and Tilahun, Binyam and To, Quyen G and Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan and Tonelli, Marcello and Topor-Madry, Roman and Torre, Anna E and Tortajada-Girbés, Miguel and Touvier, Mathilde and Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto and Tran, Bach Xuan and Tran, Khanh Bao and Tripathi, Suryakant and Troeger, Christopher E and Truelsen, Thomas Clement and Truong, Nu Thi and Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel and Tsoi, Derrick and Tudor Car, Lorainne and Tuzcu, E Murat and Tyrovolas, Stefanos and Ukwaja, Kingsley N and Ullah, Irfan and Undurraga, Eduardo A and Updike, Rachel L and Usman, Muhammad Shariq and Uthman, Olalekan A and Uzun, Selen Begüm and Vaduganathan, Muthiah and Vaezi, Afsane and Vaidya, Gaurang and Valdez, Pascual R and Varavikova, Elena and Vasankari, Tommi Juhani and Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy and Villafaina, Santos and Violante, Francesco S and Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch and Vlassov, Vasily and Vollset, Stein Emil and Vos, Theo and Wagner, Gregory R and Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw and Waheed, Yasir and Wallin, Mitchell Taylor and Walson, Judd L and Wang, Yanping and Wang, Yuan-Pang and Wassie, Molla Mesele and Weiderpass, Elisabete and Weintraub, Robert G and Weldegebreal, Fitsum and Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey and Werdecker, Andrea and Werkneh, Adhena Ayaliew and West, T Eoin and Westerman, Ronny and Whiteford, Harvey A and Widecka, Justyna and Wilner, Lauren B and Wilson, Shadrach and Winkler, Andrea Sylvia and Wiysonge, Charles Shey and Wolfe, Charles D A and Wu, Shouling and Wu, Yun-Chun and Wyper, Grant M A and Xavier, Denis and Xu, Gelin and Yadgir, Simon and Yadollahpour, Ali and Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Seyed Hossein and Yakob, Bereket and Yan, Lijing L and Yano, Yuichiro and Yaseri, Mehdi and Yasin, Yasin Jemal and Yentür, Gökalp Kadri and Yeshaneh, Alex and Yimer, Ebrahim M and Yip, Paul and Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn and Yisma, Engida and Yonemoto, Naohiro and Yonga, Gerald and Yoon, Seok-Jun and Yotebieng, Marcel and Younis, Mustafa Z and Yousefifard, Mahmoud and Yu, Chuanhua and Zadnik, Vesna and Zaidi, Zoubida and Zaman, Sojib Bin and Zamani, Mohammad and Zare, Zohreh and Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw and Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew and Zhang, Anthony Lin and Zhang, Kai and Zhou, Maigeng and Zodpey, Sanjay and Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna and Naghavi, Mohsen and Murray, Christopher J L. (2018) Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet, 392 (10159). pp. 1736-1788.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017.
METHODS:
The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries-Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm), to generate cause fractions and cause-specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised.
FINDINGS:
At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NCDs) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72·5-74·1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 18·6% (17·9-19·6), and injuries 8·0% (7·7-8·2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22·7% (21·5-23·9), representing an additional 7·61 million (7·20-8·01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7·9% (7·0-8·8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 22·2% (20·0-24·0) and the death rate by 31·8% (30·1-33·3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2·3% (0·5-4·0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13·7% (12·2-15·1) to 57·9 deaths (55·9-59·2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000-289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000-363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118·0% (88·8-148·6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36·4% (32·2-40·6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33·6% (31·2-36·1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990-neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases-were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases.
INTERPRETATION:
Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Health Interventions > Malaria Interventions (Lengeler)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Household Economics and Health Systems Research > Household Health Systems (Mäusezahl)
UniBasel Contributors:Fürst, Thomas
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0140-6736
e-ISSN:1474-547X
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:09 Apr 2019 15:06
Deposited On:21 Dec 2018 08:18

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