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Effect of schistosomiasis on the outcome of patients infected with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania

Stete, Katarina and Glass, Tracy R. and van Dam, Govert J. and Ntamatungiro, Alex and Letang, Emilio and de Dood, Claudia J. and Corstjens, Paul L. A. M. and Ndege, Robert and Mapesi, Herry and Kern, Winfried V. and Hatz, Christoph and Weisser, Maja and Utzinger, Jürg and Müller, Matthias C.. (2018) Effect of schistosomiasis on the outcome of patients infected with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12 (10). e0006844.

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Abstract

It has been hypothesized that schistosomiasis negatively influences immune reconstitution in people living with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we investigated the effect of schistosomiasis on the course of HIV infection in patients starting ART in a rural part of Tanzania.; Retrospective study including patients prospectively enrolled in a HIV cohort in Ifakara, south-central Tanzania between January 1, 2013 and April 1, 2015. Schistosomal circulating anodic antigen (CAA) was assessed in pre-ART cryopreserved plasma. Regression models were utilized to estimate the effect of CAA positivity on virological and immunological failure and a composite outcome of death/loss to follow-up (LFU).; At ART-initiation 19.1% (88/461) of patients were CAA-positive. A tendency of higher CD4 increases was seen in CAA-positive patients (+182 cells/μl, interquartile range (IQR), 87-285 cells/μl) compared to CAA-negative patients (+147 cells/μl, IQR, 55-234 cells/μl, p = 0.09) after 10 months of follow-up. After adjustment for baseline risk factors, CAA-positivity showed no association with virological or immunological failure. In CAA-positive patients, 22.7% (20/88) died or were LFU, compared to 29.5% (110/373) of CAA-negative patients (hazard ratio (HR): 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-1.22, p = 0.25). After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, educational attainment, WHO-stage, tuberculosis status, and year of ART initiation, CAA-positivity showed a trend of a decreased hazard of death/LFU (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.32-1.05, p = 0.07), while CD4 count at baseline (HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-1.00, p = 0.02) and MXD (sum of eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes counts) >1,100 cells/μl (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93, p = 0.03) were identified as independently protective factors.; Schistosomiasis is prevalent in this HIV cohort and may be beneficial for immunological reconstitution, while no effect on virological failure was apparent. A positive effect of schistosomiasis-induced immunomodulation on survival and retention in care needs confirmation in future studies.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Eco System Health Sciences > Health Impact Assessment (Utzinger)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Medicine > Clinical Research (Reither)
UniBasel Contributors:Glass, Tracy and Utzinger, Jürg and Letang Jimenez de Anta, Emilio Angel and Hatz, Christoph and Weisser, Maja
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1935-2727
e-ISSN:1935-2735
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:15 Nov 2018 15:22
Deposited On:15 Nov 2018 15:22

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