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An artificial rubidium atom

Jahn, Jan-Philipp. An artificial rubidium atom. 2018, Doctoral Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_12845

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Abstract

Harnessing quantum mechanics to revolutionize various fields of established technology has fueled research activities in recent years. Especially the prospect of inherently secure quantum communication channels has become increasingly desirable to businesses, politicians and society as a whole to protect sensitive information.
At heart, quantum communication relies on the distribution of entangled quantum states that make the communication impervious to eavesdroppers. Naturally single photons or photon pairs are an excellent choice for distributing entangled states at the speed-of-light through existing fiber-networks.
One of the most promising quantum light sources constitute epitaxial quantum dots. The high oscillator strength renders them exceptionally bright, while still emitting nearly indistinguishable single photons with quantum efficiencies close to unity, an important prerequisite for high-fidelity photonic quantum applications. By carefully manufacturing the semiconductor heterostructure, the optical environment can be individually tailored, utilizing Purcell enhancement, by embedding the emitter in a semiconductor cavity or exploiting wave guiding properties in form of micropillars or nanowires to enhance the extraction efficiency.
Inevitable optical attenuation in fiber networks however necessitates the overall communication channel length to be divided into subsections with nodes that can temporarily store the quantum information. Naturally this requires a quantum memory which can efficiently store the quantum state for a sufficiently long time and subsequently recreate the stored photon on demand.
In this framework, atomic memories represent the established benchmark, unrivaled by quantum dots spin states which remain intrinsically limited by the decoherence-inducing interaction with the solid state environment. Combining the excellent single-photon source of a quantum dot with the superior coherence properties of alkali quantum memories in a hybrid system at each quantum node offers the best of both worlds, promising exponential speed-up of truly secure communication.
This PhD thesis focuses on the requirements imposed on the quantum dot in such a hybrid quantum network and shows how these challenges can be overcome.
The first part of the introduction aims to give a detailed overview on the underlying quantum communication protocol of a hybrid quantum network and how it fares against the more established DLCZ protocol. Next, single-photon sources, and quantum dots in particular, will be outlined and the growth mechanism and optical properties of epitaxial GaAs quantum dots discussed in detail. Lastly, to illustrate the framework in which a quantum dot can efficiently be paired with alkali atoms and to understand the challenges that arise, the mode of operation and attributes of the state-of-art broadband quantum memory will be summarized in chapter 2.
The third chapter investigates the optical properties of an epitaxial GaAs quantum dot spectrally matched to rubidium. By means of strain-tuning, the quantum dot can address all hyperfine transitions of the rubidium D2 line and a first interaction with atomic vapors is shown in a transmission measurement. In conjunction with other optical measurements, true Fourier-limited emission of single photons is demonstrated. Furthermore, we establish a possible route to overcome the bandwidth mismatch of the two systems in form of the coherent-scattering regime.
While this coherent-scattering regime offers quantum dot single-photons with sub-natural bandwidths, in form of elastically scattered single photons that predominately retain the small linewidth of the excitation laser, the emission is highly probabilistic and relies on continuous-wave excitation or weak, resonant laser pulses of durations exceeding the exciton lifetime. The fourth chapter demonstrates the generation of true on-demand single photons with tailored temporal waveform envelopes between 14 and 245 ns, overcoming the temporal limitations imposed by the exciton two-level system. The photonic bandwidth is reduced by almost one order of magnitude.
In the following, the decay dynamics of a positively charged exciton in an GaAs quantum dot will be investigated by time-resolved photolumincescence and resonance fluorescence measurements (chapter 5). In Chapter 6 the optical properties of GaAs quantum dots in 500 nm thick membranes are characterized. Finally, an outlook into future developments and the solutions to remaining challenges will be presented.
Advisors:Warburton, Richard and Rastelli, Armando
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Physik > Experimental Physics (Warburton)
UniBasel Contributors:Jahn, Jan-Philipp
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis Subtype:Doctoral Thesis
Thesis no:12845
Thesis status:Complete
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:1 Online-Ressource (iv, 119 Seiten)
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:05 Dec 2018 05:30
Deposited On:04 Dec 2018 15:39

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