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A developmental engineering approach to bone regeneration

Scotti, Celeste. A developmental engineering approach to bone regeneration. 2016, Doctoral Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Medicine.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_12695

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Abstract

Embryonic development, lengthening, and repair of most bones proceed by endochondral ossification, namely through formation of a cartilage intermediate. It was previously demonstrated that adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells(hMSCs) can execute an endochondral program and ectopically generate mature bone. In this thesis, we hypothesized that hMSCs pushed through endochondral ossification can engineer a scaled-up ossicle with features of a “bone organ,” including physiologically remodeled bone, mature vasculature, and a fully functional hematopoietic compartment. Engineered hypertrophic cartilage required IL-1β to be efficiently remodeled into bone and bone marrow upon subcutaneous implantation. This model allowed distinguishing, by analogy with bone development and repair, an outer, cortical-like perichondral bone, generated mainly by host cells and laid over a premineralized area, and an inner, trabecular-like, endochondral bone, generated mainly by the human cells and formed over the cartilaginous template. Hypertrophic cartilage remodeling was paralleled by ingrowth of blood vessels, displaying sinusoid-like structures and stabilized by pericytic cells. Marrow cavities of the ossicles contained phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells at similar frequencies as native bones, and marrow from ossicles reconstituted multilineage long-term hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice. This study, by invoking a “developmental engineering” paradigm, reports the generation by appropriately instructed hMSC of an ectopic “bone organ” with a size, structure, and functionality comparable to native bones. The work thus provides a model useful for fundamental and translational studies of bone morphogenesis and regeneration, as well as for the controlled manipulation of hematopoietic stem cell niches in physiology and pathology.
In the last part of this thesis, we describe a strategy to generate customized ECM, designed to activate endogenous regenerative programs by recapitulating tissue-specific developmental processes. The paradigm was exemplified in the context of the skeletal system by testing the osteoinductive capacity of engineered and devitalized hypertrophic cartilage, which is the primordial template for the development of most bones. ECM was engineered by inducing chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells and devitalized by the implementation of a death-inducible genetic device, leading to cell apoptosis on activation and matrix protein preservation. The resulting hypertrophic cartilage ECM, tested in a stringent ectopic implantation model, efficiently remodeled to form de novo bone tissue of host origin, including mature vasculature and a hematopoietic compartment. Importantly, cartilage ECM could not generate frank bone tissue if devitalized by standard “freeze & thaw” (F&T) cycles, associated with a significant loss of glycosaminoglycans, mineral content, and ECM-bound cytokines critically involved in inflammatory, vascularization, and remodeling processes. These results support the utility of engineered ECM-based devices as off-the-shelf regenerative niches capable of recruiting and instructing resident cells toward the formation of a specific tissue.
Advisors:Martin, Ivan and Jakob, Marcel and Barbero, Andrea and Ehrbar, Martin
Faculties and Departments:03 Faculty of Medicine > Bereich Operative Fächer (Klinik) > Querschnittsbereich Forschung > Tissue Engineering (Martin)
03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Klinische Forschung > Bereich Operative Fächer (Klinik) > Querschnittsbereich Forschung > Tissue Engineering (Martin)
UniBasel Contributors:Martin, Ivan and Jakob, Marcel and Barbero, Andrea
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis Subtype:Doctoral Thesis
Thesis no:12695
Thesis status:Complete
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:1 Online-Ressource (88 Seiten)
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:17 Aug 2018 04:30
Deposited On:16 Aug 2018 09:27

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