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Comparison of novel and standard diagnostic tools for the detection of Schistosoma mekongi infection in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Cambodia

Vonghachack, Youthanavanh and Sayasone, Somphou and Khieu, Virak and Bergquist, Robert and van Dam, Govert J. and Hoekstra, Pytsje T. and Corstjens, Paul L. A. M. and Nickel, Beatrice and Marti, Hanspeter and Utzinger, Jürg and Muth, Sinuon and Odermatt, Peter. (2017) Comparison of novel and standard diagnostic tools for the detection of Schistosoma mekongi infection in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Cambodia. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 6. p. 127.

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Abstract

Given the restricted distribution of Schistosoma mekongi in one province in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and two provinces in Cambodia, together with progress of the national control programmes aimed at reducing morbidity and infection prevalence, the elimination of schistosomiasis mekongi seems feasible. However, sensitive diagnostic tools will be required to determine whether elimination has been achieved. We compared several standard and novel diagnostic tools in S. mekongi-endemic areas.; The prevalence and infection intensity of S. mekongi were evaluated in 377 study participants from four villages in the endemic areas in Lao PDR and Cambodia using Kato-Katz stool examination, antibody detection based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and schistosome circulating antigen detection by lateral-flow tests. Two highly sensitive test systems for the detection of cathodic and anodic circulating antigens (CCA, CAA) in urine and serum were utilized.; Stool microscopy revealed an overall prevalence of S. mekongi of 6.4% (one case in Cambodia and 23 cases in Lao PDR), while that of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia spp. were 50.4%, 28.1%, 3.5%, 0.3% and 1.9%, respectively. In the urine samples, the tests for CCA and CAA detected S. mekongi infections in 21.0% and 38.7% of the study participants, respectively. In the serum samples, the CAA assay revealed a prevalence of 32.4%, while a combination of the CAA assay in serum and in urine revealed a prevalence of 43.2%. There was a difference between the two study locations with a higher prevalence reached in the samples from Lao PDR.; The CCA, CAA and ELISA results showed substantially higher prevalence estimates for S. mekongi compared to Kato-Katz thick smears. Active schistosomiasis mekongi in Lao PDR and Cambodia might thus have been considerably underestimated previously. Hence, sustained control efforts are still needed to break transmission of S. mekongi. The pivotal role of highly sensitive diagnostic assays in areas targeting elimination cannot be overemphasised.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Eco System Health Sciences > Helminths and Health (Odermatt)
UniBasel Contributors:Vonghachack, Youthanavanh and Nickel, Beatrice and Marti, Hanspeter and Utzinger, Jürg and Odermatt, Peter
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Biomed Central
e-ISSN:2049-9957
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:20 Apr 2018 12:39
Deposited On:07 Dec 2017 10:04

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