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Urogenital schistosomiasis transmission on Unguja Island, Zanzibar : characterisation of persistent hot-spots

Pennance, Tom and Person, Bobbie and Muhsin, Mtumweni Ali and Khamis, Alipo Naim and Muhsin, Juma and Khamis, Iddi Simba and Mohammed, Khalfan Abdallah and Kabole, Fatma and Rollinson, David and Knopp, Stefanie. (2016) Urogenital schistosomiasis transmission on Unguja Island, Zanzibar : characterisation of persistent hot-spots. Parasites and Vectors, 9. p. 646.

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Abstract

Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis transmission is a priority for the Zanzibar Ministry of Health. Preventative chemotherapy together with additional control interventions have successfully alleviated much of the disease burden. However, a persistently high Schistosoma haematobium prevalence is found in certain areas. Our aim was to characterise and evaluate these persistent "hot-spots" of transmission and reinfection in comparison with low-prevalence areas, to support the intervention planning for schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar.; Prevalences of S. haematobium were annually determined by a single urine filtration in schoolchildren from 45 administrative areas (shehias) in Unguja in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Coverage data for biannual treatment with praziquantel were available from ministerial databases and internal surveys. Among the 45 shehias, five hot-spot (≥ 15 % prevalence) and two low-prevalence (≤ 5 %) shehias were identified and surveyed in mid-2014. Human-water contact sites (HWCSs) and the presence of S. haematobium-infected and uninfected Bulinus globosus, as well as safe water sources (SWSs) and their reliability in terms of water availability were determined and mapped.; We found no major difference in the treatment coverage between persistent hot-spot and low-prevalence shehias. On average, there were considerably more HWCSs containing B. globosus in hot-spot than in low-prevalence shehias (n = 8 vs n = 2) and also more HWCSs containing infected B. globosus (n = 2 vs n = 0). There was no striking difference in the average abundance of SWSs in hot-spot and low-prevalence shehias (n = 45 vs n = 38) and also no difference when considering SWSs with a constant water supply (average: 62 % vs 62 %). The average number of taps with a constant water supply, however, was lower in hot-spot shehias (n = 7 vs n = 14). Average distances from schools to the nearest HWCS were considerably shorter in hot-spot shehias (n = 229 m vs n = 722 m).; The number of HWCSs, their infestation with B. globosus and their distance to schools seem to play a major role for a persistently high S. haematobium prevalence in children. In addition to treatment, increasing access to reliably working taps, targeted snail control at HWCSs near schools and enhanced behaviour change measures are needed to reduce prevalences in hot-spot areas and to finally reach elimination.; ISRCTN48837681 .
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Environmental Exposures and Health > Physical Hazards and Health (Röösli)
UniBasel Contributors:Knopp, Stefanie
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1756-3305
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:20 Apr 2017 12:47
Deposited On:20 Apr 2017 12:47

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