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Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin–Streptavidin Technology: Challenges and Opportunities

Heinisch, Tillmann and Ward, Thomas R.. (2016) Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin–Streptavidin Technology: Challenges and Opportunities. Accounts of Chemical Research, 49 (9). pp. 1711-1721.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/53489/

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Abstract

The biotin–streptavidin technology offers an attractive means to engineer artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs). Initiated over 50 years ago by Bayer and Wilchek, the biotin–(strept)avidin techonology relies on the exquisite supramolecular affinity of either avidin or streptavidin for biotin. This versatile tool, commonly referred to as “molecular velcro”, allows nearly irreversible anchoring of biotinylated probes within a (strept)avidin host protein. Building upon a visionary publication by Whitesides from 1978, several groups have been exploiting this technology to create artificial metalloenzymes. For this purpose, a biotinylated organometallic catalyst is introduced within (strept)avidin to afford a hybrid catalyst that combines features reminiscent of both enzymes and organometallic catalysts. Importantly, ArMs can be optimized by chemogenetic means. Combining a small collection of biotinylated organometallic catalysts with streptavidin mutants allows generation of significant diversity, thus allowing optimization of the catalytic performance of ArMs. Pursuing this strategy, the following reactions have been implemented: hydrogenation, alcohol oxidation, sulfoxidation, dihydroxylation, allylic alkylation, transfer hydrogenation, Suzuki cross-coupling, C–H activation, and metathesis. In this Account, we summarize our efforts in the latter four reactions. X-ray analysis of various ArMs based on the biotin–streptavidin technology reveals the versatility and commensurability of the biotin-binding vestibule to accommodate and interact with transition states of the scrutinized organometallic transformations. In particular, streptavidin residues at positions 112 and 121 recurrently lie in close proximity to the biotinylated metal cofactor. This observation led us to develop a streamlined 24-well plate streptavidin production and screening platform to optimize the performance of ArMs. To date, most of the efforts in the field of ArMs have focused on the use of purified protein samples. This seriously limits the throughput of the optimization process. With the ultimate goal of complementing natural enzymes in the context of synthetic and chemical biology, we outline the milestones required to ultimately implement ArMs within a cellular environment. Indeed, we believe that ArMs may allow signficant expansion of the natural enzymes’ toolbox to access new-to-nature reactivities in vivo . With this ambitious goal in mind, we report on our efforts to (i) activate the biotinylated catalyst precursor upon incorporation within streptavidin, (ii) minimize the effect of the cellular environment on the ArM’s performance, and (iii) demonstrate the compatibility of ArMs with natural enzymes in cascade reactions.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Chemie
05 Faculty of Science > Departement Chemie > Chemie > Bioanorganische Chemie (Ward)
UniBasel Contributors:Heinisch, Tillmann and Ward, Thomas R. R.
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN:0001-4842
e-ISSN:1520-4898
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Identification Number:
Last Modified:01 Feb 2017 11:03
Deposited On:01 Feb 2017 11:03

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