Kornich, Viktoriia. Ordered spin states and quantum coherence in lowdimensional structures : quantum dots and nanowires. 2016, Doctoral Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Abstract
Since the development of microsized devices is moving forward at enormous speed, there is huge amount of new industrial opportunities. However such devices also require high precision and understanding of the operating of their constituent parts up to the quantum level. The device of the purely quantum nature being developed so far is quantum computer. However the physical realization of it is still not performed, as the requirements for it are very rigorous.
In the pioneering work by Loss and DiVincenzo it was suggested to use a spin of electron placed in a quantum dot as an information qubit. Following this work the study of electron or hole spin qubits developed. Both experimental and theoretical tools for studying them greatly advanced.
In the first part of the thesis we study the phononinduced decoherence and relaxation of singlettriplet qubits in the double quantum dots. First of all we consider AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum dots. The important result we present here is the strong dephasing that occurs at large detuning. This dephasing is due to twophonon process that affects mainly singlet state of the qubit and consequently changes the splitting between singlet and triplet leading to dephasing. Remarkably at small detuning this dephasing process is suppressed and the decoherence time is by orders of magnitude longer than in case of large detuning and is mainly defined by onephonon process. We also present the dependence of relaxation time and decoherence time on the strength of spinorbit interaction and different directions of the system. Our results provide a deeper insight into the recently obtained experimental data.
We also studied Si/SiGe quantum dots as a potential candidate for a qubit. Apart from the absence of hyperfine interaction and bulk spinorbit interaction in the isotopically purified $^{28}$Si, its electronphonon interaction is different from GaAs that also leads to longer qubit lifetimes. We study $S$$T_$ qubit near the anticrossing of the basis states. This particular region is interesting due to possibilities in operating the qubit. We show that the type of singlet plays a crucial role, i.e. whether it is a singlet with each dot singly occupied or a singlet with only one dot doubly occupied. Depending on the type of singlet the qubit lifetimes change by several orders of magnitude. We also study the influence of a micromagnet, usually used in experiments to operate the qubit, on the relaxation time and decoherence time and present the regime where its effect is negligible. We suggest how to test experimentally our theory of onephonon and twophonon processes separately. We also show how the relaxation and decoherence time depend on different system parameters for $S$$T_0$ qubits.
The second part of the thesis is devoted to the other important constituent part of microsized devices, namely nanowires. We are interested in the dynamic of polarization of localized spins in the nanowires, as it can affect such important device characteristics as e.g. conductance.
We studied RudermanKittelKasuyaYosida (RKKY) interactioninduced polarization in the nanowire in case when the voltage is applied to it. It was already proposed theoretically that in the ground state the localized spins in 1D systems align in a helix due to RKKY interaction. This polarization is still present until some critical temperature. The presence of such polarization acts as a spin filter for electrons, that most likely affects the conductance of the nanowire. Therefore we studied how this helical polarization changes when the voltage is applied. The key result is the appearance of the uniform polarization perpendicular to the helix plane, that occurs due to backscattering of electrons that is accompanied by flipflop process with localized spins. When this uniform polarization is formed, the helix starts to rotate as a whole around the direction of the uniform polarization. We present the dependence of polarization of the localized spins on temperature and voltage. Remarkably the uniform polarization grows both with voltage and temperature in the given range of parameters.
We also considered the electroninduced relaxation of the nuclear spins. As the electron spins and nuclear spins interact via hyperfine interaction, the nuclear relaxation time reflects some properties of electron bath. Namely, we see a strong dependence of nuclear relaxation time on spinorbit interaction strength. We present here the dependence of the nuclear relaxation time on the external magnetic field and chemical potential of the wire, that can be experimentally varied via gate. The dependences for the strong spinorbit interaction and for the weak one are substantially different. Moreover, they have distinct peaks, that allow to get the value of spinorbit interaction amplitude with the high precision.
In the pioneering work by Loss and DiVincenzo it was suggested to use a spin of electron placed in a quantum dot as an information qubit. Following this work the study of electron or hole spin qubits developed. Both experimental and theoretical tools for studying them greatly advanced.
In the first part of the thesis we study the phononinduced decoherence and relaxation of singlettriplet qubits in the double quantum dots. First of all we consider AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum dots. The important result we present here is the strong dephasing that occurs at large detuning. This dephasing is due to twophonon process that affects mainly singlet state of the qubit and consequently changes the splitting between singlet and triplet leading to dephasing. Remarkably at small detuning this dephasing process is suppressed and the decoherence time is by orders of magnitude longer than in case of large detuning and is mainly defined by onephonon process. We also present the dependence of relaxation time and decoherence time on the strength of spinorbit interaction and different directions of the system. Our results provide a deeper insight into the recently obtained experimental data.
We also studied Si/SiGe quantum dots as a potential candidate for a qubit. Apart from the absence of hyperfine interaction and bulk spinorbit interaction in the isotopically purified $^{28}$Si, its electronphonon interaction is different from GaAs that also leads to longer qubit lifetimes. We study $S$$T_$ qubit near the anticrossing of the basis states. This particular region is interesting due to possibilities in operating the qubit. We show that the type of singlet plays a crucial role, i.e. whether it is a singlet with each dot singly occupied or a singlet with only one dot doubly occupied. Depending on the type of singlet the qubit lifetimes change by several orders of magnitude. We also study the influence of a micromagnet, usually used in experiments to operate the qubit, on the relaxation time and decoherence time and present the regime where its effect is negligible. We suggest how to test experimentally our theory of onephonon and twophonon processes separately. We also show how the relaxation and decoherence time depend on different system parameters for $S$$T_0$ qubits.
The second part of the thesis is devoted to the other important constituent part of microsized devices, namely nanowires. We are interested in the dynamic of polarization of localized spins in the nanowires, as it can affect such important device characteristics as e.g. conductance.
We studied RudermanKittelKasuyaYosida (RKKY) interactioninduced polarization in the nanowire in case when the voltage is applied to it. It was already proposed theoretically that in the ground state the localized spins in 1D systems align in a helix due to RKKY interaction. This polarization is still present until some critical temperature. The presence of such polarization acts as a spin filter for electrons, that most likely affects the conductance of the nanowire. Therefore we studied how this helical polarization changes when the voltage is applied. The key result is the appearance of the uniform polarization perpendicular to the helix plane, that occurs due to backscattering of electrons that is accompanied by flipflop process with localized spins. When this uniform polarization is formed, the helix starts to rotate as a whole around the direction of the uniform polarization. We present the dependence of polarization of the localized spins on temperature and voltage. Remarkably the uniform polarization grows both with voltage and temperature in the given range of parameters.
We also considered the electroninduced relaxation of the nuclear spins. As the electron spins and nuclear spins interact via hyperfine interaction, the nuclear relaxation time reflects some properties of electron bath. Namely, we see a strong dependence of nuclear relaxation time on spinorbit interaction strength. We present here the dependence of the nuclear relaxation time on the external magnetic field and chemical potential of the wire, that can be experimentally varied via gate. The dependences for the strong spinorbit interaction and for the weak one are substantially different. Moreover, they have distinct peaks, that allow to get the value of spinorbit interaction amplitude with the high precision.
Advisors:  Loss, Daniel and Burkard, Guido 

Faculties and Departments:  05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Physik > Theoretische Physik Mesoscopics (Loss) 
UniBasel Contributors:  Loss, Daniel 
Item Type:  Thesis 
Thesis Subtype:  Doctoral Thesis 
Thesis no:  11688 
Thesis status:  Complete 
Number of Pages:  1 OnlineRessource (xi, 152 Seiten) 
Language:  English 
Identification Number: 

edoc DOI:  
Last Modified:  22 Jan 2018 15:52 
Deposited On:  29 Aug 2016 09:02 
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