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Socio-environmental factors associated with the risk of contracting Buruli ulcer in Tiassalé, South Côte d'Ivoire : a case-control study

N'krumah, Raymond T. A. S. and Koné, Brama and Tiembre, Issaka and Cissé, Guéladio and Pluschke, Gerd and Tanner, Marcel and Utzinger, Jürg. (2016) Socio-environmental factors associated with the risk of contracting Buruli ulcer in Tiassalé, South Côte d'Ivoire : a case-control study. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 10 (1). e0004327.

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Abstract

Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The exact mode of transmission remains elusive; yet, some studies identified environmental, socio-sanitary, and behavioral risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of such factors to contracting BU in Tiassalé, south Côte d'Ivoire.; A case-control study was conducted in 2012. Cases were BU patients diagnosed according to clinical definition put forth by the World Health Organization, readily confirmed by IS2404 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis prior to our study and recruited at one of the health centers of the district. Two controls were matched for each control, by age group (to the nearest 5 years), sex, and living community. Participants were interviewed after providing oral witnessed consent, assessing behavioral, environmental, and socio-sanitary factors.; A total of 51 incident and prevalent cases and 102 controls were enrolled. Sex ratio (male:female) was 0.9. Median age was 25 years (range: 5-70 years). Regular contact with unprotected surface water (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-19.7) and absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities (aOR = 18.5, 95% CI = 5.2-66.7) were identified as the main factors associated with the risk of contracting BU. Etiologic fractions among exposed to both factors were 84.9% and 94.6%, respectively. Good knowledge about the risks that may result in BU (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8) and perception about the disease causes (aOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02-0.3) showed protection against BU with a respective preventive fraction of 70% and 90%.; Main risk factors identified in this study were the contact with unprotected water bodies through daily activities and the absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities. An effective strategy to reduce the incidence of BU should involve compliance with protective equipment during agricultural activities and avoidance of contact with surface water and community capacity building through training and sensitization.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Eco System Health Sciences > Ecosystem Services, Climate & Health (Cissé)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology > Molecular Immunology (Pluschke)
UniBasel Contributors:Cissé, Guéladio and Pluschke, Gerd and Tanner, Marcel and Utzinger, Jürg
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1935-2727
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:25 Aug 2016 07:28
Deposited On:21 Apr 2016 08:51

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