The antioxidant machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum: Protection and signaling

Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès and Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian. (2015) The antioxidant machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum: Protection and signaling. Free radical biology & medicine, 83. pp. 341-351.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/40447/

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Cellular metabolism is inherently linked to the production of oxidizing by-products, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). When present in excess, H2O2 can damage cellular biomolecules, but when produced in coordinated fashion, it typically serves as a mobile signaling messenger. It is therefore not surprising that cell health critically relies on both low-molecular-weight and enzymatic antioxidant components, which protect from ROS-mediated damage and shape the propagation and duration of ROS signals. This review focuses on H2O2-antioxidant cross talk in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is intimately linked to the process of oxidative protein folding. ER-resident or ER-regulated sources of H2O2 and other ROS, which are subgrouped into constitutive and stimulated sources, are discussed and set into context with the diverse antioxidant mechanisms in the organelle. These include two types of peroxide-reducing enzymes, a high concentration of glutathione derived from the cytosol, and feedback-regulated thiol-disulfide switches, which negatively control the major ER oxidase ER oxidoreductin-1. Finally, new evidence highlighting emerging principles of H2O2-based cues at the ER will likely set a basis for establishing ER redox processes as a major line of future signaling research. A fundamental problem that remains to be solved is the specific, quantitative, time resolved, and targeted detection of H2O2 in the ER and in specialized ER subdomains.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Pharmazeutische Wissenschaften > Pharmazie > Molecular and Systems Toxicology (Odermatt)
UniBasel Contributors:Appenzeller, Christian
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Pergamon Press
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 11:01
Deposited On:22 Jun 2016 09:17

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