Spatial variation of PM elemental composition between and within 20 European study areas : results of the ESCAPE project

Tsai, Ming-Yi and Hoek, Gerard and Eeftens, Marloes and de Hoogh, Kees and Beelen, Rob and Beregszászi, Timea and Cesaroni, Giulia and Cirach, Marta and Cyrys, Josef and De Nazelle, Audrey and de Vocht, Frank and Ducret-Stich, Regina and Eriksen, Kirsten and Galassi, Claudia and Gražuleviciene, Regina and Gražulevicius, Tomas and Grivas, Georgios and Gryparis, Alexandros and Heinrich, Joachim and Hoffmann, Barbara and Iakovides, Minas and Keuken, Menno and Krämer, Ursula and Künzli, Nino and Lanki, Timo and Madsen, Christian and Meliefste, Kees and Merritt, Anne-Sophie and Mölter, Anna and Mosler, Gioia and Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J. and Pershagen, Göran and Phuleria, Harish and Quass, Ulrich and Ranzi, Andrea and Schaffner, Emmanuel and Sokhi, Ranjeet and Stempfelet, Morgane and Stephanou, Euripides and Sugiri, Dorothea and Taimisto, Pekka and Tewis, Marjan and Udvardy, Orsolya and Wang, Meng and Brunekreef, Bert. (2015) Spatial variation of PM elemental composition between and within 20 European study areas : results of the ESCAPE project. Environment international, 84. pp. 181-192.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/39887/

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An increasing number of epidemiological studies suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution may be related to particulate matter (PM) composition, particularly trace metals. However, we lack comprehensive data on the spatial distribution of these elements. We measured PM2.5 and PM10 in twenty study areas across Europe in three seasonal two-week periods over a year using Harvard impactors and standardized protocols. In each area, we selected street (ST), urban (UB) and regional background (RB) sites (totaling 20) to characterize local spatial variability. Elemental composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of all PM2.5 and PM10 filters. We selected a priori eight (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V, Zn) well-detected elements of health interest, which also roughly represented different sources including traffic, industry, ports, and wood burning. PM elemental composition varied greatly across Europe, indicating different regional influences. Average street to urban background ratios ranged from 0.90 (V) to 1.60 (Cu) for PM2.5 and from 0.93 (V) to 2.28 (Cu) for PM10. Our selected PM elements were variably correlated with the main pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance, NO2 and NOx) across Europe: in general, Cu and Fe in all size fractions were highly correlated (Pearson correlations above 0.75); Si and Zn in the coarse fractions were modestly correlated (between 0.5 and 0.75); and the remaining elements in the various size fractions had lower correlations (around 0.5 or below). This variability in correlation demonstrated the distinctly different spatial distributions of most of the elements. Variability of PM10_Cu and Fe was mostly due to within-study area differences (67% and 64% of overall variance, respectively) versus between-study area and exceeded that of most other traffic-related pollutants, including NO2 and soot, signaling the importance of non-tailpipe (e.g., brake wear) emissions in PM.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Former Units within Swiss TPH > Exposure Science (Tsai)
UniBasel Contributors:Tsai, Ming and Eeftens, Marloes and de Hoogh, Kees and Ducret-Stich, Regina and Künzli, Nino and Phuleria, Harish Chandra and Schaffner, Emmanuel
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:12 Sep 2018 14:08
Deposited On:28 Jan 2016 10:23

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