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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces formation of stress granules whose proteins regulate HCV RNA replication and virus assembly and egress

Garaigorta, U. and Heim, M. H. and Boyd, B. and Wieland, S. and Chisari, F. V.. (2012) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces formation of stress granules whose proteins regulate HCV RNA replication and virus assembly and egress. Journal of virology, Vol. 86, H. 20. pp. 11043-11056.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A6338528

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Abstract

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic structures that are induced in response to environmental stress, including viral infections. Here we report that hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers the appearance of SGs in a PKR- and interferon (IFN)-dependent manner. Moreover, we show an inverse correlation between the presence of stress granules and the induction of IFN-stimulated proteins, i.e., MxA and USP18, in HCV-infected cells despite high-level expression of the corresponding MxA and USP18 mRNAs, suggesting that interferon-stimulated gene translation is inhibited in stress granule-containing HCV-infected cells. Finally, in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown experiments, we found that the stress granule proteins T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1), TIA1-related protein (TIAR), and RasGAP-SH3 domain binding protein 1 (G3BP1) are required for efficient HCV RNA and protein accumulation at early time points in the infection and that G3BP1 and TIA-1 are required for intracellular and extracellular infectious virus production late in the infection, suggesting that they are required for virus assembly. In contrast, TIAR downregulation decreases extracellular infectious virus titers with little effect on intracellular RNA content or infectivity late in the infection, suggesting that it is required for infectious particle release. Collectively, these results illustrate that HCV exploits the stress granule machinery at least two ways: by inducing the formation of SGs by triggering PKR phosphorylation, thereby downregulating the translation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes, and by co-opting SG proteins for its replication, assembly, and egress.
Faculties and Departments:03 Faculty of Medicine > Departement Biomedizin > Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel > Hepatology Laboratory (Heim)
UniBasel Contributors:Heim, Markus H.
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
ISSN:0022-538X
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:08 May 2015 08:44
Deposited On:08 May 2015 08:44

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