Perego, Albino. Neutrino treatment in multidimensional astrophysical simulations : a new spectral scheme. 2014, Doctoral Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Abstract
Neutrinos play a central role in modern physics and astrophysics. Their extremely weak interaction
rate with baryons and other leptons makes their detection on the Earth difficult and challenging.
At the same time, it implies that the emission and the absorption of neutrinos are the dominant
radiative processes in hot and dense astrophysical environment (such as corecollapse supernovae
and the merger of binary compact objects), where photons are completely trapped and diffuse out on
much longer timescales. The implementation of neutrinotransport schemes in hydrodynamics simulations
is a subtle problem, especially in multidimensions, where an accurate solution of the transport
equations can be, computationally speaking, extremely expensive.
In this work, we have developed a new approximate neutrinoradiation treatment, the Advanced Spectral
Leakage (ASL) scheme; after having tested and calibrated it, we have shown a variety of applications,
both in the context of corecollapse supernovae and of binary neutron star mergers.
The ASL scheme was derived from previous grey leakage schemes, and it retains the conceptual and the
computational simplicity that characterize leakage schemes. Different from its predecessors, the new
treatment is spectral (i.e. it retains information on the particle energy), and it includes the modeling
of a neutrino trapped component in optically thick conditions and of neutrino absorption terms in
optically thin conditions. The scheme has been tested against detailed neutrinotransport in the context
of spherically symmetric models of collapsing stellar cores. We have shown that it is able to capture,
with reasonable accuracy, the main expected features during the collapse phase, at core bounce and in the
first hundreds of millisecond after bounce, both for the fundamental hydrodynamics and neutrino quantities.
The optical depth is a central quantity in leakages schemes. We have also developed a new algorithm to
compute the optical depth in multidimensional domains, without any symmetry constraint.
We called it Multidimensional Optical Depth Algorithm (MODA).
The major application of the ASL scheme in this work has been the study of the development of a neutrinodriven
wind from the hot and dense disc resulting from the merger of two neutron star. This process has been studied
for the first time in 3D Cartesian simulations, performed with the FISH code. The intense (10^53 erg/s) neutrino
emission coming from the (probably, unstable) hyper massive neutron star and from the disc itself is partially
reabsorbed by low density (< 10^10 g/cm^3), neutronrich (Y_e < 0.1) matter inside disc. This energy deposition
drives a baryonic wind, mainly perpendicular to the disc plane, on a timescale of ~50 ms. Neutrinomatter
interactions in the wind modify significantly the electron fraction of matter: the resulting distribution shows
a broad range of Y_e, from 0.2 to 0.4, with larger values along the polar directions than along the equatorial one.
At ~100ms after the merger, the amount of ejecta is of the order of 2% the initial mass of the disc, thus it
represents a significant channel for mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers. The broad range in Y_e represents
an interesting signature in the context of rprocess nucleosynthesis.
Furthermore, we have shown other applications of the ASL scheme.
First, we have implemented it in the MHD version of the FISH code to study the electron fraction in jets resulting from
magnetorotationally driven supernovae. In the case of strong and fast jet formation (~30 ms after core bounce),
the electron fraction in the ejecta is low enough (Y_e < 0.3) to produce robust rprocess nucleosynthesis.
Second, we have implemented the ASL scheme inside the SPH code SPHYNCS, to perform corecollapse simulations.
The results we have obtained are compatible with what we have obtained with grid codes. This model shows that the
scheme is of easy implementation also in Lagrangian, multidimensional SPH codes.
Finally, we have designed a new prescription to explode artificially spherically symmetric corecollapse models,
using the IDSA scheme for electron neutrinos and the ASL scheme for mu and tau neutrinos. The extra energy deposition
required to trigger the explosion is obtained by the parametrized absorption of heavy flavour neutrinos inside the
gain region. The model has shown promising results and it is well suited to study the explosive nucleosynthesis for
broad stellar progenitor samples, including detailed neutrino treatment.
rate with baryons and other leptons makes their detection on the Earth difficult and challenging.
At the same time, it implies that the emission and the absorption of neutrinos are the dominant
radiative processes in hot and dense astrophysical environment (such as corecollapse supernovae
and the merger of binary compact objects), where photons are completely trapped and diffuse out on
much longer timescales. The implementation of neutrinotransport schemes in hydrodynamics simulations
is a subtle problem, especially in multidimensions, where an accurate solution of the transport
equations can be, computationally speaking, extremely expensive.
In this work, we have developed a new approximate neutrinoradiation treatment, the Advanced Spectral
Leakage (ASL) scheme; after having tested and calibrated it, we have shown a variety of applications,
both in the context of corecollapse supernovae and of binary neutron star mergers.
The ASL scheme was derived from previous grey leakage schemes, and it retains the conceptual and the
computational simplicity that characterize leakage schemes. Different from its predecessors, the new
treatment is spectral (i.e. it retains information on the particle energy), and it includes the modeling
of a neutrino trapped component in optically thick conditions and of neutrino absorption terms in
optically thin conditions. The scheme has been tested against detailed neutrinotransport in the context
of spherically symmetric models of collapsing stellar cores. We have shown that it is able to capture,
with reasonable accuracy, the main expected features during the collapse phase, at core bounce and in the
first hundreds of millisecond after bounce, both for the fundamental hydrodynamics and neutrino quantities.
The optical depth is a central quantity in leakages schemes. We have also developed a new algorithm to
compute the optical depth in multidimensional domains, without any symmetry constraint.
We called it Multidimensional Optical Depth Algorithm (MODA).
The major application of the ASL scheme in this work has been the study of the development of a neutrinodriven
wind from the hot and dense disc resulting from the merger of two neutron star. This process has been studied
for the first time in 3D Cartesian simulations, performed with the FISH code. The intense (10^53 erg/s) neutrino
emission coming from the (probably, unstable) hyper massive neutron star and from the disc itself is partially
reabsorbed by low density (< 10^10 g/cm^3), neutronrich (Y_e < 0.1) matter inside disc. This energy deposition
drives a baryonic wind, mainly perpendicular to the disc plane, on a timescale of ~50 ms. Neutrinomatter
interactions in the wind modify significantly the electron fraction of matter: the resulting distribution shows
a broad range of Y_e, from 0.2 to 0.4, with larger values along the polar directions than along the equatorial one.
At ~100ms after the merger, the amount of ejecta is of the order of 2% the initial mass of the disc, thus it
represents a significant channel for mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers. The broad range in Y_e represents
an interesting signature in the context of rprocess nucleosynthesis.
Furthermore, we have shown other applications of the ASL scheme.
First, we have implemented it in the MHD version of the FISH code to study the electron fraction in jets resulting from
magnetorotationally driven supernovae. In the case of strong and fast jet formation (~30 ms after core bounce),
the electron fraction in the ejecta is low enough (Y_e < 0.3) to produce robust rprocess nucleosynthesis.
Second, we have implemented the ASL scheme inside the SPH code SPHYNCS, to perform corecollapse simulations.
The results we have obtained are compatible with what we have obtained with grid codes. This model shows that the
scheme is of easy implementation also in Lagrangian, multidimensional SPH codes.
Finally, we have designed a new prescription to explode artificially spherically symmetric corecollapse models,
using the IDSA scheme for electron neutrinos and the ASL scheme for mu and tau neutrinos. The extra energy deposition
required to trigger the explosion is obtained by the parametrized absorption of heavy flavour neutrinos inside the
gain region. The model has shown promising results and it is well suited to study the explosive nucleosynthesis for
broad stellar progenitor samples, including detailed neutrino treatment.
Advisors:  Thielemann, FriedrichKarl 

Committee Members:  Liebendörfer, Matthias and Rosswog, Stephan 
Faculties and Departments:  05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Former Organization Units Physics > Theoretische Physik Astrophysik (Thielemann) 
UniBasel Contributors:  Perego, Albino and Thielemann, FriedrichKarl and Liebendörfer, Matthias 
Item Type:  Thesis 
Thesis Subtype:  Doctoral Thesis 
Thesis no:  11061 
Thesis status:  Complete 
Language:  English 
Identification Number: 

Last Modified:  22 Apr 2018 04:31 
Deposited On:  24 Mar 2015 14:39 
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