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Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings : a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries

Prüss-Ustün, Annette and Bartram, Jamie and Clasen, Thomas and Colford, John M. and Cumming, Oliver and Curtis, Valerie and Bonjour, Sophie and Dangour, Alan D. and De France, Jennifer and Fewtrell, Lorna and Freeman, Matthew C. and Gordon, Bruce and Hunter, Paul R. and Johnston, Richard B. and Mathers, Colin and Mäusezahl, Daniel and Medlicott, Kate and Neira, Maria and Stocks, Meredith and Wolf, Jennyfer and Cairncross, Sandy. (2014) Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings : a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries. Tropical medicine and international health, 19 (8). pp. 894-905.

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Abstract

To estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low- and middle-income settings and provide an overview of the impact on other diseases.; For estimating the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on diarrhoea, we selected exposure levels with both sufficient global exposure data and a matching exposure-risk relationship. Global exposure data were estimated for the year 2012, and risk estimates were taken from the most recent systematic analyses. We estimated attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by country, age and sex for inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene separately, and as a cluster of risk factors. Uncertainty estimates were computed on the basis of uncertainty surrounding exposure estimates and relative risks.; In 2012, 502 000 diarrhoea deaths were estimated to be caused by inadequate drinking water and 280 000 deaths by inadequate sanitation. The most likely estimate of disease burden from inadequate hand hygiene amounts to 297 000 deaths. In total, 842 000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which amounts to 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases. In children under 5 years old, 361 000 deaths could be prevented, representing 5.5% of deaths in that age group.; This estimate confirms the importance of improving water and sanitation in low- and middle-income settings for the prevention of diarrhoeal disease burden. It also underscores the need for better data on exposure and risk reductions that can be achieved with provision of reliable piped water, community sewage with treatment and hand hygiene.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Household Economics and Health Systems Research > Household Health Systems (Mäusezahl)
UniBasel Contributors:Mäusezahl, Daniel
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:Blackwell Science
ISSN:1360-2276
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:27 Oct 2017 12:56
Deposited On:07 Nov 2014 08:28

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