Persistence of brucellosis in pastoral systems

Racloz, V. and Schelling, E. and Chitnis, N. and Roth, F. and Zinsstag, J.. (2013) Persistence of brucellosis in pastoral systems. Revue scientifique et technique, Vol. 32, no. 1. pp. 61-70.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A6165198

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Regarded as a highly contagious, zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, brucellosis is endemic in many countries and settings and is responsible for a considerable economic and health-related burden. Limited information is available on the persistence and prevalence of brucellosis in pastoral communities, due to the difficulty in gathering information and to their mobility. However, since these communities are economically and culturally dependent on livestock, it is important to further determine the cause of persistent disease and develop possible methods for its management. The two main objectives of this paper are to review the literature, identifying various epidemiological and social factors that affect the persistence of brucellosis in pastoral ecosystems, and determine prevalence estimates within these communities. The general trend of the summarised studies indicates low-level, relatively stable transmission of brucellosis in pastoral areas, when compared to transmission in intensive and semi-intensive peri-urban production systems. A formal mathematical analysis can be undertaken using matrix models or coupled differential equations. This allows an examination of the various conditions under which the number of diseased, infected or exposed animals remains stable. The authors examined an existing mathematical differential equation model for brucellosis in Mongolia for its equilibrium conditions and found it reasonably robust, though clearly more data are needed to estimate threshold densities for brucellosis transmission in other regions of the world. However, the results indicate the importance of livestock demographic determinants for brucellosis persistence. The paper concludes that brucellosis remains largely persistent in pastoral areas of the world, despite (varying) control efforts. Plans to control brucellosis in pastoral settings should include ecological considerations, such as sustaining ecosystem services in pastoral areas. This approach would include placing limitations on livestock stocking density, land reform, improved governance and integrated social and economic development.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Former Units within Swiss TPH > Mobile Populations and Health (Schelling)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Human and Animal Health > One Health (Zinsstag)
UniBasel Contributors:Schelling, Esther and Zinsstag, Jakob Z and Chitnis, Nakul
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Publisher:Office International des Epizooties
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:25 Apr 2014 08:01
Deposited On:25 Apr 2014 08:01

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