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Spatial variation of PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and PMcoarse concentrations between and within 20 European study areas and the relationship with NO2 : results of the ESCAPE project

Eeftens, M. and Tsai, M. Y. and Ampe, C. and Anwander, B. and Beelen, R. and Bellander, T. and Cesaroni, G. and Cirach, M. and Cyrys, J. and de Hoogh, K. and de Nazelle, A. and de Vocht, F. and Declercq, C. and Dedele, A. and Eriksen, K. and Galassi, C. and Grauleviciene, R. and Grivas, G. and Heinrich, J. and Hoffmann, B. and Iakovides, M. and Ineichen, A. and Katsouyanni, K. and Korek, M. and Krämer, U. and Kuhlbusch, T. and Lanki, T. and Madsen, C. and Meliefste, K. and Mölter, A. and Mosler, G. and Nieuwenhuijsen, M. and Oldenwening, M. and Pennanen, A. and Probst-Hensch, N. and Quass, U. and Raaschou-Nielsen, O. and Ranzi, A. and Stephanou, E. and Sugiri, D. and Udvardy, O. and Vaskövi, E. and Weinmayr, G. and Brunekreef, B. and Hoek, G.. (2012) Spatial variation of PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and PMcoarse concentrations between and within 20 European study areas and the relationship with NO2 : results of the ESCAPE project. Atmospheric environment, 62. pp. 303-317.

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Abstract

The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates relationships between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and health using cohort studies across Europe. This paper analyses the spatial variation of PM2.5. PM2.5 absorbance, PM10 and PMcoarse concentrations between and within 20 study areas across Europe.
We measured NO2, NOx, PM2.5. PM2.5 absorbance and PM10 between October 2008 and April 2011 using standardized methods. PMcoarse was determined as the difference between PM10 and PM2.5. In each of the twenty study areas, we selected twenty PM monitoring sites to represent the variability in important air quality predictors, including population density, traffic intensity and altitude. Each site was monitored over three 14-day periods spread over a year, using Harvard impactors. Results for each site were averaged after correcting for temporal variation using data obtained from a reference site, which was operated year-round.
Substantial concentration differences were observed between and within study areas. Concentrations for all components were higher in Southern Europe than in Western and Northern Europe, but the pattern differed per component with the highest average PM2.5 concentrations found in Turin and the highest PMcoarse in Heraklion. Street/urban background concentration ratios for PMcoarse (mean ratio 1.42) were as large as for PM2.5 absorbance (mean ratio 1.38) and higher than those for PM2.5 (1.14) and PM10 (1.23), documenting the importance of non-tailpipe emissions. Correlations between components varied between areas, but were generally high between NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance (average R-2 = 0.80). Correlations between PM2.5 and PMcoarse were lower (average R-2 = 039). Despite high correlations, concentration ratios between components varied, e.g. the NO2/PM2.5 ratio varied between 0.67 and 3.06.
In conclusion, substantial variability was found in spatial patterns of PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10 and PMcoarse. The highly standardized measurement of particle concentrations across Europe will contribute to a consistent assessment of health effects across Europe. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faculties and Departments:09 Associated Institutions > Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) > Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) > Environmental Exposures and Health
UniBasel Contributors:Ineichen, Alex and Tsai, Ming and Probst Hensch, Nicole
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:Pergamon
ISSN:1352-2310
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
Language:English
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Last Modified:05 Mar 2019 09:01
Deposited On:19 Jul 2013 07:40

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