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Protein transduction domains of HIV-1 and SIV TAT interact with charged lipid vesicles : binding mechanism and thermodynamic analysis

Ziegler, A. and Blatter, X. L. and Seelig, A. and Seelig, J.. (2003) Protein transduction domains of HIV-1 and SIV TAT interact with charged lipid vesicles : binding mechanism and thermodynamic analysis. Biochemistry, Vol. 42, H. 30. pp. 9185-9194.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A5257394

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Abstract

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) traverse cell membranes of cultured cells very efficiently by a mechanism not yet identified. Recent theories for the translocation suggest either the binding of the CPPs to extracellular glycosaminoglycans or the formation of inverted micelles with negatively charged lipids. In the present study, the binding of the protein transduction domains (PTD) of human (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) TAT peptide (amino acid residues 47-57, electric charge z(p) = +8) to membranes containing various proportions of negatively charged lipid (POPG) is characterized. Monolayer expansion measurements demonstrate that TAT-PTD insertion between lipids requires loosely packed monolayer films. For densely packed monolayers (pi < 29 mN/m) and lipid bilayers, no insertion is possible, and binding occurs via electrostatic adsorption to the membrane surface. Light scattering experiments show an aggregation of anionic lipid vesicles when the electric surface charge is neutralized by TAT-PTD, the observed stoichiometry being close to the theoretical value of 1:8. Membrane binding was quantitated with isothermal titration calorimetry and three further methods. The reaction enthalpy is Delta H degrees approximately equal to -1.5 kcal/mol peptide and is almost temperature-independent with Delta C(p) degrees approximately 0 kcal/(mol K), indicating equal contributions of polar and hydrophobic interactions to the reaction heat capacity. The binding of TAT-PTD to the anionic membrane is described by an electrostatic attraction/chemical partition model. The electrostatic attraction energy, calculated with the Gouy-Chapman theory, accounts for approximately 80% of the binding energy. The overall binding constant, K(app), is approximately 10(3)-10(4) M(-1). The intrinsic binding constant (K(p)), corrected for electrostatic effects and describing the partitioning of the peptide between the lipid-water interface and the membrane, is small and is K(p) approximately 1-10 M(-1). Deuterium and phosphorus-31 n uclear magnetic resonance demonstrate that the lipid bilay er remains intact upon TAT-PTD binding. The NMR data provi de no evidence for nonbilayer structures and also not for domain formation. This is further supported by the absence of dye efflux from single-walled lipid vesicles. The elec trostatic interaction between TAT-PTD and anionic phosphat idylglycerol is strong enough to induce a change in the he adgroup conformation of the anionic lipid, indicating a sh ort-lived but distinct correlation between the TAT-PTD and the anionic lipids on the membrane outside. TAT-PTD has a much lower affinity for lipid membranes than for glycosam inoglycans, making the latter interaction a more probable pathway for CPP binding to biological membranes.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Biozentrum > Former Organization Units Biozentrum > Biophysical Chemistry (Seelig A)
05 Faculty of Science > Departement Biozentrum > Former Organization Units Biozentrum > Biophysical Chemistry (Seelig J)
UniBasel Contributors:Seelig, Joachim and Seelig-Löffler, Anna
Item Type:Article, refereed
Article Subtype:Research Article
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN:0006-2960
Note:Publication type according to Uni Basel Research Database: Journal article
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Last Modified:14 Sep 2012 06:48
Deposited On:22 Mar 2012 13:18

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