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Techniques for fractionation, isolation and characterization of subvisible and submicron particles in biopharmaceutical preparations

Folzer, Emilien. Techniques for fractionation, isolation and characterization of subvisible and submicron particles in biopharmaceutical preparations. 2015, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_11663

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Abstract

There is an increased interest from industry, academia and regulators for protein aggregates, subvisible and visible particles due to possible biological consequences, such as immunogenicity, altered bioactivity and modified pharmacokinetic profiles. Aggregates, subvisible and visible particles are important product instabilities, which might be present in every formulation of biotherapeutic products like monoclonal antibody solutions. Especially, the presence of subvisible particles in biotherapeutic products is currently a hot topic and it constantly gains more importance.
The ultimate goal of this thesis is to develop tools and techniques in order to be able to characterize well-defined size fractions of proteinaceous subvisible particles with various desired oxidation profiles using in vivo transgenic mouse model. Up to now only a few articles were published and the available data from in vitro and in vivo experiments on aggregates and subvisible particles is often conflicting and fragmented, which impedes the development of sound conclusions. Moreover, complex mixtures of monomers, aggregates, particles and other degradants were used to draw conclusions.
Only estimated values of protein particle density were used up to now in published studies although it is required to know the density of the measured particles in order to accurately calculate their dimensions and mass. The first aim of this thesis was therefore to develop a method to measure experimentally the protein particle density without extrapolation (Chapter 1). The density for commercially available standard beads (polystyrene, polymethacrylate and melamine) and a large bench of stressed proteinaceous samples was determined with the use of the resonant mass measurement instrument (RMM, Archimedes) and its ability to measure the buoyant mass of individual particles. Various fluids with increasing densities were implemented in order to determine the neutral buoyant mass where the particle density equals the fluid density.
Chapter 2 reports the development of a process to isolate well-defined subvisible fractions using differential centrifugation for a model IgG1 antibody. The process to separate four fractions in the submicron and micrometer size range was developed and successfully optimized through the use of a design of experiments. The centrifugation technique was compared to an already published fractionation method using a preparative fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Efficiency, advantages and drawbacks for both methods were compared and discussed (Chapter 2).
Oxidation profile of aggregates and subvisible particles seem to be an important attribute regarding induced biological consequences. That is why the next goal was to develop a method for selective oxidation of methionine and tryptophan residues in a model mAb in order to be able to delineate the effects and the contribution of individual protein modifications in the primary structure. This included a large set of experiments where different reaction conditions such as temperature of incubation, reaction time, type and concentration of oxidant (t-BHP, H2O2, AAPH) were evaluated in presence (or not) of a large excess of anti-oxidant (free amino acids) in order to protect the corresponding amino acid in a model antibody of the IgG1 subtype (Chapter 3).
To complete the work, unfractionated materials and well-defined size fractions (with well-established oxidation profile) were prepared using the established tools (Chapter 1-3). Those samples were deeply characterized and injected subcutaneously into wild type and transgenic mice for immunization. Anti-drug antibody levels were measured following ELISA in order to assess the immunogenic potential of those preparations (Chapter 4).
Advisors:Huwyler, Jörg and Koulov, Atanas and Friess, Wolfgang
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Pharmazeutische Wissenschaften > Pharmazie > Pharmazeutische Technologie (Huwyler)
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis no:11663
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:1 Online-Ressource (171 Seiten)
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 11:01
Deposited On:03 May 2016 08:18

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